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Lecture

Kinesiology - Chapter 6 Reinforcement

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Department
Kinesiology
Course
Kinesiology 1088A/B
Professor
Bob Larose
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 6 Reinforcement Reinforcement  Social interaction, visual appearance, gestures  Not necessarily tangible Reinforcement: any personal interactions (evaluative comments or reactions) that will increase the occurrence or strength of a behaviour or performance Positive Reinforcement: introduction of something positive that increases or maintains a response Negative Reinforcement: removal of something noxious that increases or maintains a response Punishment: Any interaction that decreases the strength of behaviour Maximize the use of punishment – if used:  Consistency - punish everyone the same for the same misdemeanor o Punish the behaviour not the person  Cannot bad mouth the person otherwise rebellion occurs  Allow input into what is the punishment  Don’t use physical activity as punishment  Impose punishment impersonally o Don’t impose punishment for the sake of it o Don’t center out people  Make sure the punishment isn’t perceived as reward or attention  Don’t punish errors during play  Don’t embarrass players in front of teammates  Use punishment sparingly but enforce it when you use it Too often we teach to avoid punishment but don’t teach correct alternative behaviours (If the use of punishment is excessive) Social Reinforcement: Non-tangible, positive or negative, evaluative comments and reactions made by others Can be presented through either:  Verbal praise or criticism/sarcasm  Non-verbal expressions or gestures (positive or critical) Note: non-verbal expressions override verbal praise or criticism There are a number of factors which influence the degree to which social reinforcer have an impact on learning and performance- they don’t always enhance it! Social Reinforcement works best when:  It is used on younger participants  It is used infrequently  It is used to convey information about competence o Specific positive reinforcement about a specific skill  It is administered by significant people of the opposite sex  It is given by unknown or disliked others  The task being reinforced is simple, well learned, or boring Implications of Reinforcement 1. Children receiving continuous positive social reinforcement gain better self-esteem and more positive perceptions of their coach and team a. Cannot be used all the time otherwise it can be negative 2. A judicious (not constant) use of positive social reinforcement is important in the development and maintenance of positive coach/athlete interpersonal relations – which has a decided impact on learning ( especially physical skills) 3. It must be decided whether to use social reinforcement to improve performance (use sparingly) or to enhance the social environment (use liberally) or something in between 4. Any use of positive social reinforcement should: a. Be meaningful or important to the participant (not given indiscriminately) i. Specific to a behaviour, skill or performance b. Be contingent on some performance criteria not just outcome c. Be administered immediately and consistently among all participants d. Be given for demonstrating good effor
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