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Arousal and aggression.docx

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Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

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Arousal, Stress & Anxiety Arousal – A blend of physiological and psychological activation - the intensity of motivation at any particular time - the activation or excitation ranging on a continuum from sleep to hyper-intensity - caused by anticipation – of an event, a threat, or worry Stress - Selye (1956) – „fight or flight‟ - The result of substantial imbalance between the physical & psychological demands of a task and one‟s response capabilities under conditions where failure has important consequences - 4 stages – environmental demand, perception of demand (threat), stress response (anxiety), behavioral consequence (outcome/performance) - above are a cyclical process Anxiety - A negative emotional state characterized by nervousness, worry and apprehension - Has a cognitive (mental) component (worry, apprehension) - Also has a somatic (physiological) component (increased heart or breathing rate, sweating, nausea, “butterflies”, faint) Arousal Theories 1. Drive Theory (spense, 1966) - performance = f(habit/drive) - linear relationship between arousal and performance (as arousal increases so does performance) - impact dependent on how well the task is learned (social facilitation theory ) - No longer much support for this theory - Note: arousal/stress/anxiety are not always a bad thing 2. Inverted U Hypothesis - there are optimal levels of arousal - once reach optimal level, performance deteriorates if you continue to become more aroused or activated - is a zone not a point (IZOF – Hanin) I = Individual Nov 19 Properties of Imagery Vividness: - ablility to produce vibrant images Controllability: - persistent but for only the time needed How, What, When - use in conjunction with relaxation techniques - develop images based on previous outstanding performance or experience - image soon after the event (use video of self or of a model then mimic in mind) - used more frequently in competition settings Factors of Good Imaging 1. Proper Setting 2. Relaxed Concentration 3. Realistic Expectations 4. Vivid and controllable images 5. Positive Focus 6. Videotape 7. Execution and outcome 8. Image in real time Perspective Internal -see self perform through your eyes External Use of Imagery Produces: - learn new skills and retain skills - quick and accurate decision making - increased confidence - improved concentration - more fluid and automatic movement - control emotional responses - rehearse strategies Imagery Effectiveness Most beneficial for highly cognitive tasks (as opposed to motor). Greatest effects during the early stages of learning Previous experience is not a necessary condition Functions of Imagery (Paiv
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