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Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

Intro to Sport Psychology Notes 2 (for FINAL) October 19 2011 Psychological Skills Training (PST)  The systematic and consistent practice of mental or psychological skills  Psychological skills can be learned but must be practiced and integrated into your routine  Psychological factors account for most day to day fluctuations in performance Myths:  Psychological skills are innate (they cannot be learned)  Only for “problem athletes”  Only effective for the “elite” athlete  Provide for “quick fix” solutions  Not useful – “hocus pocus” Components of PST Program: 1. Education Phase: Learn the nature and basis of the skill and understand how it influences performance 2. Acquisition Phase: Structure training program to develop skills and techniques 3. Practice Phase: Integrate skill development into practice and competitive settings **Helps make the sporting experience fun and helps/meets everyone’s needs** PST Program:  Who?: - Sport psychology consultant - Coach  When?: - Pre-season or off season - 3-6 month duration - Ongoing process integrated into practices  Needs Assessment: - Evaluate strength and weaknesses - Oral interview and psychology inventory - Performing Profiling  What?: - Which skills to include? - Scheduling - Evaluation and follow-up 1  Problems: - Lack of conviction - Lack of time - Lack of knowledge - Lack of follow-up 1. Psychological Skills (INITIAL FOCUS) a) Psychological Skills: - Personal qualities to be attained or developed (ex: target behaviours) b) Performance Skills: - Optimal Arousal (mental and physical) - Attention Control c) Foundation Skills: - Self-Confidence - Motivation - Self-Awareness - Self-Esteem d) Facilitative Skills: - Interpersonal-Awareness - Lifestyle Management Pride = Skill & Process = Method 2. Psychological Methods (SECONDARY FOCUS) - Procedures or techniques used to develop psychological SKILLS (vehicle used to attain skills) - Goal Setting, relaxation, imagery, thought processes (self-talk), attribution. Presence of Others as a Motivator: - Other s = Spectators or audience (observers) = Co-actors (others doing same task-opponent) a) SOCIAL FACILITATION THEORY (Zajonc, 1965) - The mere presence of others serves to increase arousal levels (more anxious) and causes a response to occur faster or more intensely 1. Increased arousal will increase the likelihood that an individual’s dominant response will occur 2. In simple, well learned skills, correct responses and improved performance occurs in the presence of others 2 3. In complexor newly learned skills the dominant responses may be incorrect (old or bad habits) and performance will be impaired in the presence of others. 4. Evaluation Apprehension: It’s not just the presence of others that causes arousal. Rather, it is the expectation that those present will be judge or evaluate the quality of the performance that increases arousal ad influences performance effectiveness. October 24 2011 - We learn to associate others with praise/blame or reward/punish type of evaluations - “I always do better when you’re not looking” - An audience can thus have either an arousing or a calming effect and produces resultant variations in performance or behaviour (DRIVE THEORY) Cognitive Approach (Borden, 1980) - Incorporates both of the above theories but takes it one step further - The performer is not simply a reactor who responds to an audience - The performer is a PROACTIVE participant who… o Interprets the social situation (through perceptions and exceptions) o Predicts the possible audience reaction o And alters behaviour to appeal to this reaction - Previous experience, age, gender and personality will all influence the individuals subject interpretation of the social situation - The size of the audience is not as important as how the individual interprets the size within the situation (numbers according to setting—hostile vs. supportive) - Expertise interpret whether the crowd can accurately assess the quality of the performance - Supportiveness quality of social support from those present HOME FIELD:  Advantages (Varca, 1980): o Functional aggression (home) = more rebounds, blocks, steals o Dysfunctional aggression (away) = more fouls, turnovers  Disadvantages (Beaumeister, 1984): - Increased self-consciousness distracts from the automatic execution of skills (playoffs) 3 Implications: There is very little that can be done to eliminate the stressful effects of the presence of others at sporting or exercise events BUT… o Eliminate evaluative apprehension and control arousal especially when learning new skill o Knowledge is power – educate and inform participants about it! -Inform the athletes about the common physiological reactions to stress so they can recognize them when they occur (butterflies, muscle tension etc…) - Inform the athletes how audiences can influence performance -Inform them about the effects that stress and anxiety can have on performance Perfect Practice makes Perfect: a) Over learn skills, techniques, strategy b) Train by simulating audience effects (taped or real crowds at practice) c) Pair high and low anxious athletes (veteran and rookie – buddies) Specificity: Arrange practice sessions (both skill and stress reaction situations) so they will approximate game conditions (last second or minutes; special teams) AROUSAL, STRESS AND ANXIETY:  Arousal: o A blend of physiological and psychological activation o The intensity of motivation at any particular time o Activation or excitation ranging on a continuum from sleep to hyper-intensity (different activities need different levels of arousal) o Caused by anticipation of an even, a threat or worry  Stress: o “Fight or Flight” (Selye, 1950) o The result of a substantial influence between the physical and psychological demands of a task and one’s response capabilities under conditions where failure has important consequences. o 4 STAGES… - Environmental demand - Perception of demand (threat) - Stress response (anxiety) - Behavioural consequences (outcome/performance) 4 October 26 2011 Anxiety:  A negative emotional state characterized by nervousness, worry and apprehension  Has a cognitive (mental) component (worry, apprehension etc…)  Also has a somatic (physiological) component (increased heart rate or breathing rate, sweating, nausea, “butterflies”, faint) Arousal Theories: 1. Drive Theory (Spence, 1966)  Performance = f(habit/drive) – f is a function  How well learned is the skill / how motivated are you?  Linear relationship between arousal and performance (as arousal increases so does performance)  Impact dependant on how well the task is learned (social facilitator theory)  There is no longer much support for this theory  Arousal/Stress/Anxiety are not always bad things 2. Inverted U Hypothesis  There are optimal levels of arousal  Once reach optimal level, performance deteriorates if you continue to become more aroused or activated  Is a zone not a point (IZOF – Individual Zone of Optimal Function (Hanin))  Varies from person to person  Different tasks have different optimal levels (even insane event) 3. Catastrophe Theory (Mandy, 1996)  Somatic anxiety can have markedly different effects on performance depending on the cognitive anxiety (worry) being experienced  If worry is low – inverted U relationship  If worry is high – activation reaches an optimal threshold after which there is a dramatic or “catastrophic” decline in performance (individual literally falls apart, can’t perform as they are so worried)  Difficult to recover from one experience (could take several games to recover as you just keep thinking about it) 4. Reversal Theory: (Apter and Kerr, 1984/1985)  It is the cognitive interpretation of one’s arousal level that impacts performance  High arousal = excitement or anxiety  Low arousal = relaxation or boredom  Pleasant or unpleasant?  Individuals are subject to very rapid changes or reversals in their interpretation of the same event (ex: parachuting)  The best performance then to be when interpretation is pleasant excitement. 5 Anxiety: (Spielberger, 1966)  Need for Achievement vs. Fear of Failure  These are personality traits, independent or one another and stable over long periods of time  They are basic traits that will influence how arousal will affect a person in a specific situation (competitive sport) Trait Anxiety:  Stable personality tendency to perceive situations as threatening when they are really not State Anxiety:  A changing emotional state characterized by tension and apprehension and by autonomic nervous system reactions  Measure with inventories like SCAT (Sport Competition Anxiety Test) – Martens, 1977) SCAT:  Assess the degree of the personality trait of anxiety  Assess the degree of stress before, during and after an event (state anxiety)  Assess the overall effect of anxiety during a competition Findings of SCAT:  No difference in trait or state anxiety levels between: - Participants and non-participants - Most skilled vs. least skilled competition (rookies vs. vets) - Assess the overall effect of anxiety during a competition - State anxiety levels gradually decrease with age and experience  High trait anxious individuals experience higher feelings of state anxiety prior to, during and after competition.  Trait anxiety levels have no influence on ultimate ability levels of the performers  Sources of Stress – INDIVIDUALIZED! Sources of Stress: 1. Situational: - Importance of the event or segments of it - Uncertainty of outcome or life events 2. Personal: - Trait Anxiety - Self-Esteem - Social physique evaluation of anxiety (how do I look compared to them—predominant in fashion) 6 What are some factors influencing perception of stress (situational)? a) Individual/ team sports b) Expectations for success c) Winning vs. losing/ trying to do one’s best (outcome vs. performance) *reference to goal setting d) Attributions to outcome- learned helplessness (“they were just lucky,” etc.)  “nothing I can do; no matter how hard I try I can’t win” What is fear of success?  Homer, 1985  Withhold effort or involvement so we don’t have to live up to levels attained in previous best performance What are the effects of anxiety? 1. Somatic- interferes with muscle coordination (tense); simultaneous contraction of antagonist muscle groups 2. Psychological- distress and distraction of attention  Think about physical problems (feeling nervous, knees shaking) and not focusing on task at hand  Narrowing the visual field and eliminations of visual cues  Thinking about nervousness rather than the task you need to perform (fixated) Anxiety results in a negative cycle/ spiral (more anxious, more detriment to performance, poorer performance, more anxiety) - Must learn to break the cycle and control arousal (stress and anxiety) - Be in control but relaxed (coping) - Players and coaches must learn various techniques to help them COPE with the anxiety that arises from competition What is coping?  A dynamic process of constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific internal/ external demands viewed as exceeding one’s resources (Lazarus and Folkman)  Can be problem focused (manage the problem; “every time I got to the plate I feel anxious- how do I manage this particular situation?) or emotion focused (regulating emotional responses) Techniques to cope with state anxiety (chpt. 12)  Self- awareness- monitoring own tension levels, recognizing and accepting (can be facilitative or debilitative)  Dissociation- change the focus of attention from stressor to a more neutral situation (don’t think about it) 7 Prevention of long- term/ chronic problems (can’t sleep, restless and fidgety, pre- game nausea)  Physiological/ somatic techniques- used to reduce physical tension levels) o Progressive relaxation:  Jacobson, 1938  Contraction and relaxation of muscle groups in a sequential order (p.275) o Biofeedback  Use of instrumentation to provide signals that indicate current and subsequent levels of physiological tension  Examples: heart rate monitor (actually hearing your heart rate slow, every beep of your pulse can be sensed), blood pressure, galvanic skin response (sweat monitor), etc. o Breath control  Cognitive techniques- used to reduce worry and negative thoughts o Meditation (relaxation response)  Quiet the mind, passive process  Use of mantra  Count exhalations o Autogenic training  Exercise designed to provide feelings of warmth and heaviness (P.278) o Hypnosis  Gradual progression into a trance- like state during which goal directed suggestions are given by the leader o Matching hypothesis  Match anxiety type with style of intervention (cognitive and somatic)  Match the problem with the cure What are MULTIMODAL REDUCTION PACKAGES?  SMT (state) o Stress management training o Sit with a councilor o An integrated cognitive and somatic intervention strategy o Accounts for situation, appraisal of situation, physiological response and actual behavior  SIT (trait) o Stress inoculation theory o Gradual exposure to and coping with increasingly stressful situations Dealing with acute problems:  Immediately and prior to/ during a contest  Helps participants focus on the task at hand  Negative thought stopping (positive thinking) 8 A. SELF TALK  Stop thinking negatively  Substitute positive thoughts immediately  Use CUE words, images, music, etc. (ex. Nas- I know I can  )  Relatively new area of research  DEFINITION: an internal dialogue through which an individual interprets feelings and perceptions, regulates evaluations and convictions and gives self- instructions and reinforcement o 6 dimensions of self- talk:  Self- determined/ assigned  Perspective- internal (voice in head)  Valence (+ or -)  Direction- perception of motivating or demotivating  Intensity- impact on motivation  Frequency- how often it’s used o Performance can be influenced positively or negatively by some or all of the dimensions of self- talk B. REFOCUSING- “parking”  Recognize the thought/problem but set it aside during competition  Realize you can’t deal with the issue now but come back to deal with it at a more appropriate time  Touching: o Physically “park” the thought o Ex. Touch something (bottom of pool, fence, home plate, etc.) and leave the problem there; when finished performing, return and touch the place again to collect the problem and deal with it C. BREATH CONTROL  Usually automatic and spontaneous (autonomic) BUT you can take over control of your breathing pattern and direct your breathing response  When anxiety/ fright triggers a biological alarm response, the normal pattern of breathing changes- sharp inhale and hold breath rather than rhythmical exhale What are some other immediate coping techniques?  Attention control training- task at hand  Centering- breath and body control  Mental rehearsal- imagery What are some on- site relaxation techniques? a) Self- monitoring of somatic tension levels 9 b) Smile- takes the edge off; release tension in jaw, neck, hands c) Have fun- enjoy the experience (look forward to activity) d) Practice stressful situations (simulate pressure) e) Take your time- slow down the pace, maintain regular routines f) Stay focused on/ in the present- leave the last play behind, because you can’t change it, also forget about the future (“what happens if…”); stay in the NOW g) Have a game plan – easier decision making, scouting and spotting opponents Nov 2 2011 Arousal Induction: a) Consciously increase breathing rate b) Act energized c) Positive self-talk d) Energizing music e) Arousing Imagery f) Warm-up/Workout *Increasing arousal level* GOAL SETTING (CH.15):  Goal = a target, standard or objective  Goal setting; A process of establishing a target or objective in specific behavioural terms Three (3) main types of goals: 1. Outcome goals – win or lose (your record) 2. Performance goals – how well play/personal best (preferred due to greater personal control) 3. Process goal – actions to execute in order to perform better What does Goal Setting do? Direct Effort 1. Directs attention and action (choice) 2. Mobilizes energy (effort/vigour) 3. Prolongs effort (persistence) 4. Encourages the development of a strategy to attain goals (action plan) Indirect effect influences performance by working on psychological states (anxiety, confidence, satisfaction, attention etc…) 10 Benefits of Goal Setting: 1. Increases productivity and improves quality of work 2. Clarifies expectations 3. Relieves boredom 4. Provides personal recognition 5. Increases personal and task enjoyment Goals can be set for: a) Training sessions (logbook) b) Practice Sessions (areas to work on) c) Competitive events d) Team social events  For each of these sessions or events goals can be focused on… - Conditioning - Knowledge/Strategy - Performance Skills - Attitude / Behaviour  Goal setting is an extremely powerful technique for enhancing performance, but it must be implemented correctly.  Mata-analysis of goal-setting literature has shown that goal setting is the strongest effect on performance and satisfaction of any motivational technique 90% average outcomes – Average 16% increase.  Warning: Don’t overload athletes with too many goals at one time – concentrate on a few of the most important ones. Principles of Goal Setting: The most effective goals are the ones that are… 1. Relatively difficult, challenging but attainable (realistic to achieve) 2. Specific (action-oriented) and measurable (quantifiable) 3. Within or geared to the ability potential of the participant 4. Note: The coach may need to provide a lot of input when inexperienced participants set goals as they may not know the task demands or be able to assess their own skill or potential. 5. Public and formally committed to by the participant – written or verbal contract (in a positive format) 6. Flexible and adjustable (up or down) at all times 7. Have a specific time frame/ dates 8. Sequential and prioritize but limited in number 11 9. Long-term goals progressively linked by intermediate and short term goals (8-10 week program is most effective)  Ex: Figure skater – pass first test, do a jump, learn to spin, do a bigger jump, pass second test get an award 10. Supported by the coach, who is a partner and facilitator in the goal setting process (commitment and ownership) 11. Evaluate and reinforce goal attainment on effort before performance outcome 12. Don’t tie the goals to one’s self-worth (take personal risk/embarrassment out of goal attainment 13. Develop goal achievement strategies (action plans) that are unique to each individual/group Nov 4 2011 What is goal setting independent of?  Age  Gender  Education Level  Personality/disposition What is the follow up to goal setting? 1. Identify appropriate evaluation procedures on a regular basis (charts, stats, etc…) 2. Encourage progress towards goals, not just towards goal attainment 3. Regularly revaluate and adjust goals/strategies of achievement to make them more realistic (especially short term goals) What is group goal setting?  Attainment of specific standards of group (not individual) proficiency within a specified time/event: - Practice – usually process oriented focusing effort - Game – more focused on outcomes and implementation of specific skills/strategies As a leader…:  Involve all participants in the formulation of group goals (commitment)  Strive for consensus (work for compromise); facilitate, don’t dictate  Decide on strategies to achieve goals including levels of effort, commitment, behaviour and consensus  Publicize (Publicly??) most goals and update/evaluate progress regularly (each week or after each game) 12 What are SMARTS goals? S – Specific M – Measurable A – Action oriented R – Realistic/Achievable T – Timing (reasonable) S – Self-determined Nov 7 2011 GET NOTES ON INCENTIVE MOTIVATION!!! General Findings: 1. ???? 2. There are usually multiple motives operating at various strength at any one time 3. The most dominant motives that have been identified are: - Affiliation (make or be with friends) - Excellence (Skill development to the highest level) - Excitement/Stress(thrill seeking) - Success (winning) and status (recognition) - Fitness and energy release 4. Weaker but still present as distinct motives are: - Independence (able to do on own) - Power (control over others) - Aggression (intimidation) - Influence of others (parents, peers, friends) 5. There are no differences observed in incentive motivation when analyzed for: - Age - Gender - Type of sport - Culture NOTE: Having fun is often cited as a motive but, it is suggested that the “FUN” is really the result of other incentive motive fulfillment. 6. The reasons for discontinuing in an activity are also multiple and complex (i.e. the failure to achieve satisfaction of one or more incentives is weighed against those that have been attained) 13 7. Other sports or activities start to have a greater interest than the one that you are currently involved in (conflict of interest) so you drop out (sport specific – vs.—sports general drop out) 8. The negative reasons for dropping out of an activity are: - Lack of ability (failure to improve) - Lack of success (winning) - Lack of playing time - Lack of enjoyment - Injury - Boredom - Lack of support from significant others - Dislike of the coach or his/her style (win at all cost attitude) - Pressure from parents 9. Negative reasons have more impact and are more important for younger or less experienced participants IMPLICATIONS:  The coach or leader must deliberately increase the opportunities for at least the major incentives to be satisfied.  To do so, he/she needs to engage in a process to attempt to discover what incentives each participant brings to the activity (IMI – Incentive Motivation Index) a) Affiliation: - Place value on all roles - Allow or plan social activities beyond the sport setting - Encourage mutual support and team unity (cohesion) b) Excellence: - Help set realistic personal and group goals relative to ability levels - Provide for as much skill development as possible (over learning by doing do repeatedly in practice) c) Stress/Excitement: - Provide variation and novelty in practice - Give participants many challenging opportunities and expectations d) Status/Success: - Don’t ever emphasize winning but don’t ignore its importance - Promote all roles, effort and performance e) Fitness: - Provide all participants with the opportunity to be active and involved - Conditioning is a valuable part of every activity but don’t use as punishment 14 Nov 9 2011 The Competitive Process (Martens, 1975)  Each individual experiments the competitive process differently and it may vary from one situation to another within the same person.  The competitive process is primarily focused on social evaluation (comparison with others or standards)  Linked stages often influenced by external feedback and rewards The Competitive Process Diagram: 1. The Objective Competitive Situation: - Comparison criteria is known by others who can evaluate performance 2. Subjective Competitive Situation: - How the person perceives the objective situation - 3 Orientations: a) Competitiveness b) Win Oriented c) Goal Oriented - SOQ (Gill, 1988) – Sport Orientation Questionnaire) 3. Response : - Approach/Avoid - Behavioural – type of opponent (ex: weak, dominating etc…) - Physiological – arousal - Psychological – internal and external factors 4. Consequences: - Positive or negative - Perception of consequence - Effects subsequent events **Inner Factors from Diagram** a) Attitude: - Competitiveness is a learned behaviour and is influenced by the social environment and varies in intensity by…  Culture  Personality  Age b) Personality: - Need for achievement – seek-out challenges where success is in doubt (competition at its highest) - Fear of failure – avoidance of competitive situations 15 c) Ability: - The relationship between ability and the challenges of the task influence the competitive drive - Competitiveness is strongest when participants are relatively equal in ability. - If unequal in ability the activity becomes co-operative learning until more equal in ability - Competitiveness is strongest if the participants have high ability - If low ability and made to compete; effort, performance and interest are reduced. d) Motives: - Early success increases competitive drive while early failure decreases it and either circumstances can influence the participants motives for future competition - Suggest more co-operative style games (rec. leagues) at younger ages - Wait until early teens for highly competitive games and teams - Insure some initial success if possible (i.e. scheduling, controlled scrimmages, exhibition games) Nov 11 2011 Cooperation: (Orick 1978 and Oakley 1994) - Reduce competitiveness and experiences of failure in sport for younger children - Develop positive behaviours and attitudes about sport and reduce or eliminate hostility and conflict = emphasis on cooperative elements of participation - Promote common goals, group productivity and achievement situations - Reduce the stress of competitive involvement especially in younger participants - Participants typically experience higher levels of competitive stress:  In individual sports than team sport situations  When the importance of the game increases  When a contest is lost or tied  When the person has high trait anxiety  Can disrupt sleeping and eating routines Implications: 1. Emphasize co-operative activities at younger ages 2. Relate the outcome of the contest to the goals set prior to the competition 3. Define what winning and losing mean to you and the team - Losing may hurt but it is not a BAD thing - The coach must act as a stabilizing influence when stress results from losing - One of the most important responsibilities for a coach is to put winning into perspective and being there to sooth or mediate the emotional side-effects of losing. - Success is not forever and failure is not fatal 16 4. Competition is not inherently good or bad – neither is cooperation. An over emphasis on either (winning at all cost or never competing) is inappropriate. We need to integrate both aspects into the games we play. - Recognize that competitiveness is pervasive in today’s society and will dominate over cooperation. - Allow and plan for it – don’t attempt to eliminate it completely = frustration when it won’t go away. Self-Confidence as a Motivator: - It is possible to have either too much or too little confidence Definition: - Self-confidence – a general feeling of mastery (personality trait) - Belief you can successfully perform a task Self-Efficacy: (Bandura, 1977) - Confidence in a specific situation (not necessarily confidence in all situations) – state - The strength of an individual’s conviction that he/she can successfully execute a behaviour, perform a task or handle a situation to produce a desired result. - Self-efficacy combines with an incentive to succeed and the ability to succeed to produce a successful performance. Sport Confidence: - Belief by an athlete that they possess the ability to be
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