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Kin 1088- term 1 lectures (a)

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Department
Kinesiology
Course
Kinesiology 1088A/B
Professor
Bob Larose
Semester
Winter

Description
Kinesiology- Lecture 1 (Friday) Sept 9/11 -6 labs (count 5) 3% each = 15% of grade Objectives of Exercise Psychology a.) Psychological factors effect physical performance b.) How participation influences psychological development (well being) Comprehensive objective Understanding of behavior and performance through 1.) Description 2.) Explanation 3.)Prediction* Behavior- a unique way of responding to all stimuli Performance- a goal directed behavior for the purpose of short-term execution of a discrete task Orientation to Sports Psychology BEHAVIORAL- behavior of athletes determined by environment -ex. Weather PSHCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL- study impact of physiological responses to activity on behavior COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR- behavior is determined by ones interpretation of both environment and cognitions (how self talks influence the outcome) *this one is not simple unlike the previous two Professional Approaches  Clinical counseling (ex. eating disorders)  Crisis intervention  Psychological assessment  Performance and enhancement  Consultation and program development  Prevention and treatment of injuries Sport Psychologist vs. Sport Consultant Kolb’s learning cycle a.) Concrete experiment – actual feeling b.) Reflective observation- watching what happened c.) Abstract conceptualization d.) Active experimentation – try again Methods and way of knowing (how to generate knowledge) 1.) Scientific method/experiment (scientific approach to gaining knowledge) 2.) Systematic observation (how people behave/preform *you know who is preforming well simply by observing them) 3.) Single Case Study (observe one person to gain knowledge) 4.) Shared public Experience (talk to someone who has gone through the same thing) 5.) Introspection (your own thoughts or feelings) 6.) Intuition** (“passive knowledge” –usually use this) Ways of Knowing in Sport Psychology -Any systematic study of sport psychology has to include these stages 1.) Observation and description (what is it- identify or define the essential characteristics) 2.) Analysis/ Explanation (why) – attempt to provide reason for stage 1 3.) Prediction (what will it be- use knowledge obtained to predict future occurrences 4.) Control (how can we) – what can we control to change the behavior or performance Kinesiology- Lecture 2 (Monday) Sept 12/11 Scientific Method  Objectivity- lack of bias (founded on this concept)  Manipulative nature  Uses systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical filtering of knowledge through experience  Six steps 1.) Formulation of hypothesis 2.) Design investigation 3.) Accumulate data 4.) Classification of data 5.) Development of generalization 6.) Verify the results (Provides scientists with reliable and valid data that can be used to develop generalizations theories and laws of human error)- however this is a slow and conservative process that often lacks external validity Professional Practice Knowledge -Holistic and experimental (guided trial and error learning reflecting the complex interplay of many factors) -It is often innovative and immediately applicable but less reliable and susceptive to bias - Biggest difference is the central and active role of the researcher in the process of knowing (within the research rather than a neutral outside observer Pre-eminence of tactic knowledge- a process of interference and intuition that integrates clues into meaning Subsidiary awareness of certain clues- we know more then we can tell – it just seems logical - Use unique experience and knowledge to develop strategies Ex. (ways to draw out passive knowledge) - Case studies - Clinical reports - In depth interviews - Introspective results - Participant observations - Shared experiences - You must actively integrate scientific knowledge with professional experience and temper these with your own insights and intuition Motivation -Latin “to move” -Def’n- the direction (approach/avoid), and intensity (high/low) of ones effort -Situation orientated, participant orientated, the interaction of both - A theoretical construct (not a directly observable phenomenon) -Accounts for selection of activities, intensity you put into them, persistence you show Kinesiology- Lecture 3 (Wednesday) Sept 14/11 Personal factors Needs, interests, goals, personality Situational factors Coach style, facility, team win/loss record (Combined it is a participant-by-situation interaction= participant motivation -Some motivational factors can be easily changed (goal setting, reinforcement, self confidence) while others are difficult to influence (presence of others, anxiety, focus of attention) Guidelines  Both the situation and personal traits motivate participants  Important for leader (coach) and player to know what motivates them to preform well (different for everyone ex. “there’s a lot on the line” or “its only a game” concept) Competing motives Shared motive/ Unique motives Motives change over time  Structure or change the environment to enhance motivation  Important role of the leader (coach) in influencing motivation  Undesirable motives can be changed by behavior modification techniques “manipulate how you preform” Token Rewards as Motivators Reward- things used to modify or manipulate or manipulate behavior Reinforcement- personal interaction- verbal/non-verbal Token rewards- also known as behavior modification **Contingency management** Contingency- relationship between a behavior and its consequence (not listening to coach contingency might be to sit on the bench) Contingency Management- regulate behavior of use of tokens to influence or alter outcomes Ex. token rewards: scholarships, trophy, food, money, freedom, love - Undesirable behaviors can be eliminated through use of tokens - Desirable traits can be enhanced by tokens - Token rewards have spill over effect on non-target behaviors - Other observed spill over effects from the research  Satisfaction and enjoyment  Attendance and promptness  Interest and attitudes  Conformance to rules  Social interaction  Statements of approval- less complaining token rewards can be used to improve individual skills and or task preformed not just used to change behaviors Guidelines  Target only a couple of behaviors and explain/define them in readily observable terms  State the contingency/outcomes clearly  Monitor the behaviors carefully and consistently  Provide meaningful public feedback- not base it on social comparison  Use simple reward systems Kinesiology- Lecture 4 (Friday) Sept 16/11 6. Think and start small and then expand 7. Consider individual differences when applying a program of behavior modification GRADUALLY WORK TO ELIMINATE THE TOKEN SYSTEM AS THE DESIRABLE BEHAVIOURS ARE ENTRENCHED Reinforcement 1. Def.- any personal interaction (evaluative comments or reactions) that will increase the occurrence or strength of a behavior or performance Positive reinf.- introduction of something positive that increases or maintains a response Negative reinf.- removal of something noxious that increases or maintains a response (doesn’t decrease the strength of behavior, still increases but still negative- ex. At the end of practice you DON’T have to do sprints at the end- removing action therefore negative reinf. is not “negative”) Punishment- any interaction that decreases the strength of a behavior (ex- if you are late for practice you sit on the bench- usually associated with fear) 2. Maximizing the use of punishment- if you decide you use it -Consistency (punish everyone the same for the same misdemeanor) -Punish the behavior not the person -Allow input into what is the punishment -Don’t use physical activity as punishment (looking to see physical activity as a good thing) -Impose punishment impersonally -Make sure the punishment isn’t perceived as reward or attention -Don’t punish errors during play -Don’t embarrass players in front of teammates -Use sparingly but enforce it when you use it To often we teach to avoid punishment but don’t teach correct alternative behaviors Social Reinforcement Def.-Non tangible, positive or negative, evaluative comments and reactions made by others (ex.- winning a game is reinforcement but if no one tells you that you played well then you might not be sure) Can be presented through either a.) Verbal praise or criticism/sarcasm b.) Non-verbal expressions or gestures (positive or critical) *non verbal usually overrides verbal There are a number of factors that influence the degree to which social rein forcers have an impact on learning and performance Social reinforcement works best when.. -It’s used on younger participants -It is used infrequently -It is used to convey information about your competence -It is done by significant people of the opposite sex (when older) - Given by unknown or disliked others (ex. opposite teams coach tells you that you played well) -The task being is simple well learned (may be considered boring) Implications 1. Children receiving continuous positive social reinforcement gain better self-esteem and more positive perceptions of their coach and team. 2. A judicious use (sporadic/spontaneously/only sometimes) of positive reinforcement is importance in coach/athlete interpersonal relations which has an impact on learning (especially physical skills) If used too much it loses its impact 3. It must be decided whether to use social reinforcement to improve performance (use sparingly) or to enhance the social environment (use liberally) or something in-between. 4. Any use of positive social reinforcement should: a. be meaningful or important to the participant b. be contingent on some performance criteria not just on outcome (give reinforcement along the way not just when the player gets a hit) c. be administered immediately and consistently among all participants d. be given for demonstrating good effort towards the target behavior or performance of skill e. allow for mistakes f. reward appropriate social and emotional responses g. be used to maintain skills already developed by continuing to reinforce correct performance (don’t just focus on incorrect performance or negative behavior. Kinesiology- Lecture 5 (Monday) Sept 19/11 Distribution of Social Reinforcement and Punishment for effective coaching and teaching (Kauss 1980) 50% positive reinforcement 45% ignore bad behavior while suggesting correct behavior 5% punishment “time out procedure” for repeated negative behavior Procedures for developing and maintaining specific performances or behaviors 1.) Shaping- reinforcement of successively closer approximations of the terminal (final) performance or behavior. a.) Determine present ability level b.) Identify steps or stages of the skill to be learned c.) Identify appropriate reinforcers (ex. verbal or gestural or tokens- what’s right for the individual?) d.) Clarify the terminal level of skill, performance, or behavior e.) Start with most important stages that can be accomplished successfully. Provide positive reinforcement f.) Selectively reinforce behavior or skill executed that is increasingly similar to the terminal/target skill or behavior. g.) Then begin to fill in the missing parts of identified skill-not a sequential process 2.) Chaining – successive reinforcement of the component parts or segments of a skill or behavior (work from beginning to end or end to beginning) a.) Break skill into linked segments b.) Teach and reinforce each segment in turn c.) Work in each link until it is at or near terminal level of execution d.) Work from beginning to end Show the whole skill > 1 part at a time > then whole skill again (ex lay-up) 2.) Reinforcement Schedules a.) Constant schedule (every occurrence of skill you see- initial training) b.) Intermittent schedule I. Ratio: (ex 1 of 3 times you give reinforcement, or given after a set number of times) II. Internal- given after a set time (ex. 2 mins) III. Duration- during a set time (ex. warm up and wind sprints) Kinesiology- Lecture 6 (Wednesday) Sept 21/11 1.) Intrinsic Motivation- desire to participate in an activity or task for its own sake, enjoyment, challenge - We have this innate (born with) need to feel competent and self-determining when dealing with one’s environment (Deci, 1975) (need to make own choices) - Characterized by an ongoing process of seeking and attempting to conquer challenges that are optimal for one’s ability (ex. don’t try to ride a motorcycle if we can’t ride a bicycle- search for activities that demonstrate how good we are) How to measure Intrinsic Motivation: a.) Free choice involvement in an activity- time spent (how much time do we spend doing the things we choose to do) b.) Presence of Performance Quality- complexity, creativity, flexibility, spontaneity c.) Ask people- self report questionnaires- interest, enjoyment, satisfaction 3.) Extrinsic Motivation- behavior engaged in for reasons other then the activity itself- external rewards - EXTRINSIC REWARDS CAN ENCOURAGE INTRINSIC MOTIVATION - Activity becomes a means to an end- a way to an external reward or comply with the demands of others. - Produces a feeling of external control resulting in compliance or defiance and is manifested by feelings of pressure, tension, or apprehension (not sure you want to get involved) Intrinsic and Extrinsic motives are on a continuum (sometimes one sometimes the other) they are interactive (one influences the other) but not additive (see pg 140) can compete or co-operate with one another) How external rewards influence intrinsic interest have been analyzed in two ways: a.) Empirical Approach- research based (analyze how people react) (ex. Lepper and Green- nursery study, draw with felt tip pens 3-groups- expected rewards, no rewards, unexpected rewards… one week later- results: expected rewards spent less then half the time drawing then the non-reward or unexpected reward groups did) Extrinsic reward decreased intrinsic motivation b.) Cognitive evaluation theory (Deci and Ryan 1985) -Evaluates how an individual perceives the impact of the external rewards and thus the effect this perception has on his/her intrinsic motivation (enhance it or undermine it) A sub theory of the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan) – 3 basic psychological needs: effectance, relatedness (how you get along with people around you) and autonomy **Thus a reward can be perceived to have a controlling or an informational function Control- locus of Causality (self-determination)- if external it undermines/decreases intrinsic motivation, if internal it enhances intrinsic motivation Information- about one’s competence- greater perceived competence enhances int. mot. (ex. reward increases motivation if perceived as reward for doing/playing well), Diminished perceived competence decreases int. mot. SALIENCE: the importance attributed to a reward will determine how it is perceived by the recipient (the reward isn’t salience to you) (Visual- textbook page 143-contrlling aspect of a reward and informational aspect of a reward) Other Empirical Propositions c.) The gender of the reward recipient influences the interpretation of the reward- this is gradually changing in today’s society Ryan’s study of scholarships - Football decreases int. mot. (Feelings of control- felt pushed around by the school, corporation) - Wrestlers and female athletes- increases int. mot. As it provides information on competence since scholarships not given them as often d.) The age of the reward recipient influences their interpretation of the reward - as kids get older the tend to view rewards more as a bribe (control) e.) Extrinsic rewards are associated with work (payment, promotion, and success/status) Intrinsic rewards are associated with play (mastery, skill acquisition, challenge, excitement) In sport and exercise science concentrate on providing intrinsic rewards – avoid feelings of work (stay in a cycle of play and enjoyment) f.) Competition and a focus on winning can act as an extrinsic informational reward- particularly for males -Competitive success tends to increase intrinsic motivation. Failure decreases it - Emphasize information on performance competence (mastery) when relating competition results or else loosing = incompetence = decreased int. mot. “Its not if you win or lose its how you play the game” Kinesiology- Lecture 7 (Friday) Sept 23/11 2.) Anecdotal Reports- Csikszentmilhalyi- 1990 (What the flow experience is all about- asked people) Asked if there are common pleasurable experiences in a variety of physical activities (fun and enjoyment) Asked if there are common elements which produce these experiences Asked do they occur in other activities (sports, rock climbers, musicians etc.) Identified the term FLOW EXPERIENCE - an autotelic feeling where the participant feels totally involved in the activity (“do the activity for the sheet joy of the doing”) - Flow is attained when the participants perceived skills are equal to the demand or challenges of the task and the following conditions are present 1.) We become completely absorbed in the activity- so in involved that nothing else matters 2.) Merging of action and awareness- totally involved in the task (don’t have to think about it, it just happens) 3.) Have a sense of control over ones actions and the environment 4.) Attention is centered and focused on only a few important details 5.) Loss of ego (self-consciousness) where there isn’t a concern about embarrassment 6.) The demands/goals of the task are clear and the feedback is accurate and specific to the task 7.) Time is transformed- seems to speed up 8.) Effortless movement- don’t have to think about it or try to hard (automatic pilot) FLOW is usually attained when both capabilities and challenge are HIGH How to achieve Flow?  Motivation to preform (challenge)  Optimal level of arousal (vary by individual)  Maintain narrow focus on key elements- stay in the present  Precompetitive and competitive plans and prep (working out)  Physical preparation and readiness  Confidence and Positive mental attitude (PMA)  Trust and shared sense of purpose with teammates (cohesion)  Feeling good about performance- in sync Implications: 1.) Extrinsic rewards do not necessarily undermine or enhance intrinsic interest in an activity. 2.) It is the individuals interpretation of the reward (SALIENCE) that is critical 3.) It is not a question of whether or not to use an extrinsic reward- rather it is how such a reward should be used 4.) It is the controlling and informational aspect of the reward that must be considered Therefore: as a leader we should -Provide an optimally challenging environment -Provide rewards for competence -Use small rewards that are not too controlling -Provide opportunity for self-determination (for rules- they decide) -Be interpersonally supportive** Make people “origins” not “pawns” Kinesiology- Lecture 8 (Monday) Sept 26/11 Communication Process: Decision (ex. to compliment someone) > coding > sender > channel (verbal, gestural) > receive > decode > Response Purpose of Communication: Persuade, Evaluate, Inform/Instruct, Motivation, Problem Solve Types of Communication: interpersonal, intrapersonal (self-talk/ thought) Guidelines for sending effective messages (for interpersonal) 1.) Be direct 2.) Own your message (not: someone told me say I/me) 3.) Be complete and specific 4.) Avoid double messages 5.) State your feelings clearly 6.) Separate Fact from fiction 7.) Focus on one thing at a time 8.) Deliver message immediately 9.) Be supportive 10.) Be consistent with non-verbal message (consistent with verbal) 11.) Reinforce using repetition 12.) Tailor message to experience of receiver (ex. kids or uneducated people) (Need to portray our messages clearly to the people/group) 13.) Was message accurately interpreted? Intrapersonal: inner dialogue that helps to shape how we act and perform Non-verbal- 50% of all communication - We tend to believe it more then we believe verbal communication - Physical appearance (first impressions) - Body language- postu
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