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Kin 1088- term 1 lectures (b)

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Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

Kinesiology- Lecture 16- (Monday) Oct. 17/11 Theoretical Approaches to Exercise Adherence - Likelihood of engaging in preventive health behaviors depends on ones perception of the severity of a potential illness vs. the appraisal of costs and benefits of taking action 1.) Health Belief Model (cont’d) Example: Potential illnesses associated with not exercising are serious He or she is at risk Pros outweigh cons 2.) Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) – Ajzen and Fishbein 1980 -Intentions are best predictors of actual behavior - Intentions are the product of attitude toward a particular behavior and subjective norms (belief about others’ expectations and motivations to comply with them) Attitude, Subjective Norms  Intention  Behavior (Attitude: positive or negative evaluation of performing the behavior) (Subjective Norm: perceive social pressure to preform or not perform a given behavior) 3.) Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) Ajzen and Madden, 1986 - Intentions cannot be the sole predictor of behavior, especially in situations where people lack control over the behavior - In addition to attitudes and subjective norms, perceived behavioral control will also influence intentions not done (Influences intention and DIRECTLY influences behavior too) Strategies for Enhancing Adherence - Encourage social support from significant others - Make the exercise enjoyable use variety and music - Tailor the intensity, frequency, and duration to the individual - Exercise in a group or with a buddy - Reinforce success (ex. attendance and participation) - Offer choice of activities - Suggest keeping daily logs - Focus on dissociative (internal bodily) cues while exercising *focusing on own body, ex. running and you feel like you can’t go on focus on something else (birds, joggers, etc) Kinesiology- Lecture 17 (Wednesday) Oct 19/11 Chapter 11- Psychological Skills Training (PST) Def’n: The systematic and consistent practice of mental or psychological skills -Psychological skills can be learned but must be practiced and integrated into your training routine (practice over and over until it becomes part of your routine) - Psychological factors account for most day-to-day fluctuations in performance Myths: -Psychological skills are innate (can’t be learned) -Only for problem athletes - Only effective for elite athletes -Provide “quick fix” solutions - Not useful Components of PST Programs 1.) Educational Phrase: learn the nature and basis of the skills and understand how it influences performance 2.) Acquisition Phase: structured training program to develop skills and techniques 3.) Practice Phase: integrate skill development into practice and competitive settings helps make the sporting experience fun and helps meet everyone’s needs PST Program Who: - Sport psychology consultant - Coach When: - Pre season or off season - 3-6 month duration - Ongoing process integrated into practices Needs Assessment: Evaluate strengths and weaknesses, oral interview and psych inventories, performance profiling (identify outstanding player, listing good qualities they have.. how many of these skills do I have?) What: - Which skills to include - Scheduling - Evaluation and follow up Problems Lack of conviction Lack of time Lack of knowledge Lack of follow up PST 1.) Psychological Skills (initial focus) 2.) Psychological Methods (secondary focus) (skills- know what you have to do  method- how you do it) Skills- personal qualities to be attained or developed (ie target behaviors) Performance Skills ~ optimal arousal- mental, physical ~ attention control Foundation skills: ~self confidence ~volition (motivation) ~ self esteem/self awareness Facilitative Skills ~interpersonal relations ~lifestyle management Methods- Procedures or techniques used to develop psychological SKILLS (vehicle used to attain skills) Ex. goal setting, relaxations, imagery, thought processes, attributes. *New Topic* Presence of others as a motivator Others: spectators or audience (observers), or cofactors 9others doing same task- rivals) A.) Social Facilitation Theory: The mere presence of others serves to increase arousal levels and cause a response to occur faster or more intensely. 1.) Increased arousal will increase the likelihood that an individuals dominant response will occur 2.) In simple well learned skills correct responses and improved performance occurs in the presence of others 3.) In complex or newly learned skills the dominant response may be correct (old or bad habits) and performance will be impaired in the presence of others B.) Evaluation Apprehension It is not just the presence of others that causes arousal. Rather it is the expectation that those present will judge or evaluate the quality of the performance that increases arousal and influences performance effectiveness. Kinesiology- Oct 21/11- MIDTERM Kinesiology- Lecture 18 (Monday) Oct 24/11 -An audience can thus have either an arousing or a calming effect and produce resultant variations in performance or behavior (Drive Theory) C.) Cognitive Approach (Borden 1980) -Incorporates both the above theories but takes it a step further -The performer is not simply a reactor who responds to an audience or co-actors - The performer is a PROACTIVE participant who:  Interprets the social situation (through perceptions and expectations) (Ex. when people boo at an away game know it is to “get under your skin”)  Predicts the possible audience reactions  Alter behavior to appeal to this reaction - Previous experience, age, gender, and personality will all influence the individual’s subjective interpretation of the social situation. - The size of the audience is not as important as how the individual interprets the size within the situation- (numbers according to setting- hostile vs supportive) - Expertise- interpret whether the crowd can accurately assess the quality of the performance (ex. crowd of 10 year olds not as important as scouts and peers) - Supportiveness- quality of social support from those present *ALL COMES DOWN TO INTERPRETATION* Home Field: a.) Advantage (Varca 1980) o Functional aggression (home) = more rebound, blocks, steals o Dysfunctional aggression (away) = more fouls, turnovers b.) Disadvantage (Beaumeister 1984) o Increased self consciousness distracts from the automatic execution of skills (playoffs) Implications: - There is very little that can be done to eliminate the stressful effects of the presence of others at sporting or exercise events BUT: 1.) Eliminate evaluation apprehension and control arousal especially when learning new skills 2.) Knowledge is power- educate and inform participants about a.) The common physiological reactions to stress so they can recognize them b.) Inform them about how audiences can influence performance c.) About the effects that stress can have on performance 3.) Perfect Practice (makes perfect) a.) Overlearn skills, strategy, and techniques b.) Train by simulating audience effects (taped or real crowds at practice) c.) Pair high and low anxious athletes (veteran and rookies) 4.) Specificity -Arrange practice sessions (both skill and stress reaction situations) so they will approximate game conditions (last second or minutes; special teams) Stress, Arousal, and Anxiety Arousal: - A blend of physiological and psychological activation - The intensity of motivation at any particular time - Activation or excitation ranging on a continuum from sleep to hyper-intensity - Caused by anticipation of an event, a threat, or worry Stress (Selye – “fight or flight) -The result of a substantial imbalance between the physical and psychological demands of a task and ones response capabilities under conditions where failure has important consequences. -4 stages: Environmental demand Perception of demand (how much of a threat is this task) Stress response (anxiety created) Behavioral Consequences (outcome/performance) Kinesiology- Lecture 19 (Wednesday) Oct 26/11 Evaluation Apprehension -It's not just the presence of others but the expectation that those present will judge/evaluate the quality of performance that increases arousal and influences performance. -An audience can thus have an arousing or calming effect and produce variations in performance or behavior. (drive theory) Cognitive Approach Incorporates both of the above theories but takes it a step further. Performer is not simply a reactor who responds to an audience or co actors, performer is a proactive participant who: - interprets social situations (through expectations) - predicts possible audience reactions - alters behavior to appeal to this reaction previous experience, age, gender and personality will all influence our subjective interpretation of the social situation. Size of audience is not as important as how individual interprets the size within the situation. (numbers according to setting) Expertise- whether the crowd can accurately assess the quality of the performance. Supportiveness- quality of social support from those present Home Field a) advantage -functional aggression (home) =more rebounds, blocks, steals -dysfunctional aggression (away) = more fouls, turnovers b) disadvantage - increased self consciousness distracts from the automatic execution of skills (playoffs) Implications -Very little can be done to eliminate stressful effects of the presence of others at sporting events BUT: 1. Eliminate evaluative apprehension and control arousal especially when learning new skills 2. Knowledge is power- educate and inform participants about: a) Inform athletes about common physiological reactions to stress b) Inform them about effects that stress and anxiety can have on performance c) Inform them about how audiences effect performance 3. Perfect practice (makes perfect) a) Over learn skills, techniques, strategy b) Train by simulating audience effects (taped or real crowd) c) Pair high and low anxious athletes (veteran and rookies) 4.Specificity a.) Arrange practice sessions (both skill and stress reaction situations) so they will approximate game conditions (last seconds, special times) Arousal, stress and anxiety -Arousal: a blend of physiological and psychological activation - The intensity of motivation at any particular time - Activation or excitation ranging on a continuum from sleep to hyper activity - Caused by anticipation of an event, threat Stress- Selye (1956) "fight or flight" Result of a substantial imbalance between the physical and psychological demands of a task and ones response capabilities under conditions where failure has important consequences 4 stages: 1.) Environmental demand 2.) Perception of demand (threat) 3.) Stress response (anxiety) 4.) Behavioral consequences (outcome/performance) Kinesiology- Lecture 20 (Friday) Oct 28/11 Other Factors influencing one’s perception of stress in a competitive situation: 1.) Individual or team sports (individual sports usually feel more pressure) 2.) Expectations for success (think that the other team is better, they will be better) 3.) Winning vs. losing or trying to do your best (outcome vs performance- reference to goal setting) *ex. is your goal to win or to set a personal best record 4.) Attributions to outcome- learned helplessness (what is the excuse we give for the outcome) Fear of Success (Horner, 1985) - Withhold effort or involvement so don’t have to live up to levels attained in previous best performance Effects of Anxiety 1.) Somatic (physical) - Interferes with muscles co-ordination - Simultaneous contraction or tension in antagonistic muscle groups 2.) Psychological - Distraction of attention (think about failing, striking out etc.) - Think about your physical problems and not focused at task on hand - Narrowing the visual field and elimination of relevant cues -Anxiety results in a Negative Cycle or Spiral (more anxious, more detriment to performance; poorer performance, more anxiety) *downward cycle of anxiety -must break cycle and control arousal (stress and anxiety) - coping- be in control but relaxed -Players and coaches must learn various techniques to help them COPE with the anxiety that arises from competition -Coping: a DYNAMIC (constantly changing) process of constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific internal or external demands that are viewed as exceeding one’s resources (Lazarus and Folkman) Can be: - Problem focused- manage problem (with what coping skill) - Emotion focused – regulating emotional responses (what coping skills use here) Techniques used to COPE with state anxiety 1.) Self-awareness- monitoring own tension levels, recognize and accept (can be facilitative (good) or debilitative (bad) *can be bad if you don’t know what to do*) 2.) Dissociation- change the focus of attention from the stressor to more neutral situation Prevention of Chronic (long term) problems o Can’t sleep o Restless/ fidgety o Pre-game nausea 1.) Physiological (somatic) techniques -Used to reduce physical tension levels - Progressive Relaxation (Jacobsen 1938) -Contracting and relaxing of major muscle groups in a sequential order (often use audio taped instructions) Somatic Coping Techniques: Biofeedback- use of instrumentation to provide signals that indicate curret and subsequent levels of physiological tension (**ex. heart monitors, blood pressure, galvanic skin response etc.) Breath control- more later Cognitive Techniques -Used to reduce worry and negative thoughts Mediation (relaxation response) quiets the mind, passive process (don’t force it), use neutral key words or sounds (mantra) Count Exhalations- if you lose count start over Autogenic Training – (start thinking about our bodies) - Exercises designed to produce feelings of warmth and heaviness (pretend hand are warm or heavy) Hypnosis - Gradual progression in a trance-like state during which goal directed suggestions are given by leader Matching Hypothesis – match anxiety type with style or intervention (cognitive and somatic) Kinesiology- Lecture 21 (Monday) Oct 31/11 Multimodal Reduction Packages (cognitive and somatic) SMT (Stress Management Training)- an integrated cognitive and somatic intervention strategy - Accounts for situation, appraisal of situation, physiological response and actual behavior SIT (Stress Inoculation Training)- gradual exposure to and coping with increasingly stressful situations C.) Dealing with ACUTE (more immediate) Problems - Immediately prior to or during a contest - Help participant focus on the task at hand - Negative thought stopping (positive thinking) *cognitive approach a.) Self talk  Stop thinking negatively  Substitute positive thoughts immediately  Use CUE words, images, music, etc. SELF- TALK: (relatively new area of research) Def: an internal dialogue through which a person interprets feelings and perceptions, regulates (changes) evaluations and convictions and gives self-instructions and reinforcement Six Dimensions of Self-Talk a.) Self determined or assigned b.) Perspective- internal (voice in head) vs. external (out loud) c.) Valence- its either positive or negative d.) Direction – perception of motivating or demotivating e.) Intensity- impact on motivation f.) Frequency- how often its used Performance can be influenced positively or negatively by some or all of the dimensions of self-talk B.) Refocus- “parking” -Recognize negative thought or problem but set it aside during competition - Realize can’t deal with it now but will come back to it later at a more appropriate time -Physically “park” the thought (touch) and then come back to reacquire when ready to deal with it (more powerful and realistic) D.) Breath Control: -Breathing is usually automatic and spontaneous (autonomic) BUT you can take over control of your breathing pattern and direct your breathing response -When anxiety or fright triggers a biological alarm response, the normal pattern of breathing changes- sharp inhale and hold breath rather than rhythmical exhale Other Immediate Coping Techniques  Attention Control Training  Centering  Mental Rehearsal (Imagery) On site Relaxation:  Self- monitoring of somatic tension levels  SMILE- takes the edge off tension  Relax jaw, neck, hands Have fun- enjoy the experience  Look forward to the activity  Practice stressful situations (simulate pressure)  Take your time- slow down the pace, maintain regular routines  Stay Focused on/in the present  Forget “what happens it”  Have a game plan - Easier decision-making - Scouting and spotting opponents Arousal Induction a.) Consciously increase breathing rate b.) Acting energized c.) Positive self talk d.) Energizing music e.) Arousal imagery f.) Warm up/work out Kinesiology- Lecture 22 (Wednesday) Nov 02/11 Goal Setting- Chapter 15 Goal= a target, standard or objective Goal Setting: a process of establishing a target or objective in specific behavioral terms Three main types of Goals a.) Outcome goals= win/lose b.) Performance goal= how well play/personal best (preferred due to greater personal control) c.) Process goals= actions to execute in order to perform better What does goal setting do? 1.) Directs attention and action (choice) 2.) Mobilizes energy (effort/vigor) 3.) Prolongs effort (persistence) 4.) Encourages the development of strategy to attain goals (action plan) Indirect effect: influences performance by working on psychological states (anxiety, confidence, satisfaction, attention, etc.) Benefits of Goal Setting (direct effect): 1.) Improves productivity and improves quality of work 2.) Clarifies expectations 3.) Relieves boredom 4.) Provides personal recognition 5.) Increases personal and task enjoyment Goals can be set for: a.) Training sessions (log book) b.) Practice sessions (areas to work on) c.) Competitive events d.) Team social events For each of these sessions or events goals can be focused on: -Conditioning -Knowledge/strategy -Performance skills Goal setting is an extremely powerful technique for enhancing performance but it must be implemented correctly Meta-analysis (took 200 studies put them all together and commented on it) of goal setting literature (Lock and Launders) has shown that goal setting as the strongest effect on performance and satisfaction of any motivational technique (60% +ve outcomes- ave 16% increase) Warning- don’t overload athletes with too many goals at one time- concentrate on a few of the most important goals Principles of Goal Setting The most effective goals are the ones that are: 1.) Relatively difficult, challenging, but attainable (realistic to achieve) 2.) Specific (action-oriented) and measureable (quantifiable)- process goals 3.) Within or geared to the ability potential of the participants Note: the coach may need to provide a lot of input when inexperience participants set goals as they may not know the task demands or be able to assess their own skill level or potential 4.) Public and formally committed to by the participant- written or verbal contract (in a positive format) 5.) Flexible and adjustable (up or down) at all times *maybe standard is too high or too low so adjust it according 6.) Have a specific time frame *how long are you going to take to do it 7.) Sequential and prioritized but limited in number (most important) 8.) Long term goals progressively linked by intermediate and short term goals (8 to 10 week program most effective) 9.) Accompanied by feedback (KR) and possibly with rewards Ex. Bill’s dieting study- 3 groups a.) Control- no goals or records b.) Feedback group (daily log on consumption) c.) Goals AND feedback Most successful were the GOALS AND FEEDBACK 1.) Supported by the coach who is a partner and facilitator in the goal setting process (commitment and ownership) i. -Educate significant other about feedback ( parents usually ask “did you win” instead of “how did you play) 2.) Evaluate and reinforce goal attainment on effort before performance outcome 3.) Do not tie the goals to one’s self-worth (take personal risk/embarrassment out of goal attainment) *ex. Don’t do it thinking “if I don’t lose weight I’ll never get a boyfriend 4.) Develop goal achievement strategies (action plans) that are unique to each individual or group (ex. two friends may not both be trying to lose same amount of weight if one is slim) Kinesiology- Lecture 23 (Friday) Nov 04/11 To be successful seems to be independent of: - Age - Gender - Education level - Personality Follow up to goal Setting: 1.) Identify appropriate evaluation procedures and evaluate on a regular/frequent basis (manager chart stats. During practices and games) 2.) Encourages progress towards stated goals not just goal attainment 3.) Regularly reevaluate and adjust goals and strategies to achieve them to make them more realistic (especially short term goals) Group Goal Setting Attainment of specific standards of group (not individual) proficiency within a specified time or event -Practice (usually process oriented focusing on effort) ex. everyone brings up anaerobic ability - Game- more focused on outcomes and implementation of specific skills and strategies As a leader a.) Involve all participants in the formation of group goals (commitment) *no social loafing b.) Strive for consensus- work for compromise- facilitate don’t dictate c.) Decide on strategies to achieve foals including levels of effort, commitment, behavior, and consequences d.) Publically post goals and update/evaluate progress regularly (each week or after each game) Final concept in Goal Setting (SMARTS Goals) S- specific M- measurable A- action (what we are actually going to do, process) T- realistic/achievable S- self-determined (they have input into goal Incentive Motivation- NEW TOPIC Def: the value attached to the possible outcomes (goals) available to participants in sports and physical activity (What do we anticipate? Enjoyment, health and well being, etc) - There are numerous different value that we can attach to activities - Based on confirmation (outcome) our future involvement is affected (ex. if it did’t help to tone you (your goal) then you probably won’t continue doing activity) Researched Topic in two was: a.) Identify main incentive that influence choice, persistence, and effort of participation b.) Identify reasons why participants drop out of activities Kinesiology- Lecture 24 (Monday) Nov. 07/11 General Findings 1.) Each individual has his/her own unique reasons for participation 2.) There are usually multiple motives operating at various strengths at any one time (many things pulling you to be involved with an activity 3.) The most dominant motives that have been identified are:  Affiliation (do things because our friends do them.. to make or be with friends)  Excellence (skill development to the highest level)  Excitement?? (Parachuting- gives me a thrill)  Success (wining) and status (recognition)  Fitness and energy release 4.) Weaker but still present as distinct motives are:  Independence (I can run whenever I want)  Demonstrate my Power (control over others)  Aggression (intimidation- similar to power *control)  Influence of others (parents, peers, and friends) 5.) There are no differences observed in incentive motivation when analyzed for:  Age  Gender  Type of sport  Culture NOTE: Having fun is often cited as a motive but it is suggested that the “FUN” is really the result of other incentive motive fulfillment (its the result of incentives being fulfilled but not the incentive itself) 6.) The reasons for discontinuing in an activity are also multiple and complex (ie. Failure to achieve satisfaction of one or more primary incentives is weighed against those that have been attained 7.) Other sports or activities start to have a greater interest than the one that you are currently involved in (conflict of interest) so you drop out (sport- specific vs. sport-general dropout) 8.) The negative reasons for dropping a course  Lack of ability (failure to improve skills)  Lack of success (winning)  Lack of playing time  Lack of enjoyment (no FUN)  Injury  Boredom  Lack of support from significant others  Dislike of coach or his/her style (win at all cost attitude)  Pressure of parents Negative reasons have more impact and are more important for younger or less experienced participants (as you become more experienced then you have to have a very strong negative to drop out. It’s easier to drop out when you’re younger or haven’t been involved in the activity for long) Implications:  The coach or leader must deliberately increase the opportunities for at least the major incentives to be satisfied  To do so, he/she needs to engage in a process to attempt to discover what incentives each participant brings to the activity (IMI- incentive motivation index) a.) Affiliation  Place value on all roles (help them accept their role)  Allow or plan social activities beyond the sport setting  Encourage mutual support and team unity b.) Excellence  Help set realistic personal and group goals relative to ability level  Provide for as much skill development as possible (over-learning by doing repeatedly in practice) c.) Stress/excitement  Provide variation and novelty in practice  Give participants many challenging opportunities and expectation d.) Status/success  Don’t over emphasize winning but don’t ignore it’s importance  Promote all roles, effort, and performance e.) Fitness  Provide all participants with the opportunity to be active and involved  Conditioning is a valuable part of every activity but don’t use as punishment Kinesiology- Lecture 25 (Wednesday) Nov 9/11 ompetition as a motivator competition is a strong motivational force embedded in all sporting situations and in many recreational settings as well. However coach/leaders have little control over it. Descriptors: A situational process that is either zero sum or non zero sum (reward structures) and is either direct or indirect. zero sum= one person wins, one person loses non zero sum= co operative, one person helps the other learn ex. letting them start with a 5 point lead direct= you vs. me indirect= vs. speed, height, elements ex. rock climbing Co-operation Working together with others to accomplish a task or reach a common goal. - competition and co-operation can be at work at the same time on any team/group ex. team mates vs. opponents but also team mates competing for starting position competition= fairness vs. decompetition= rival (page 105 in text) Competitive Process (Martens 1975) - each individual experiences the competitive process differently and it may vary from one situation to another within the same person. - competitive process is primarily focused on social evaluation (comparison with others or standards) - linked stages often influenced by external feedback and rewards. Page 106 diagram Outside components of diagram: 1. Objective competitive situation - comparison criteria is known by others who can evaluate performance 2. Subjective competitive situation - how the person perceives the objective situation 3 orientations a) competitiveness b) win oriented c) goal oriented SOQ= sport orientation questionnaire, to determine and individuals competitiveness 3, Response - approach/avoidance - behavioral- type of opponent - physiological, arousal - psychological- internal + external factors 4. Consequences - positive or negative - perception of consequence - effects subsequent events Inside components of diagram: Attitudes - competitiveness is a learned behavior and is influenced by the social environment and varies in intensity by: - culture - personality - age Personality Dispositions - need for achievement- seek out challenges where success is in doubt - fear of failure, avoidance of competitive situations Ability The relationship between ability and the challenges of the task influence the competitive drive - competitiveness is strongest when participants are relatively equal in ability. - if unequal in ability the activity becomes co operative learning until more equal - competitiveness is strongest if participants have high ability - if low in ability and made to compete, effort performance and interest are reduced. Motives Early success increases competitive drive while early failure decreases it and either circumstance can influence the participants for future competition. - suggest more co-operative style games (rec leagues) at younger ages - wait until early teens for highly competitive games and teams - insure some initial success if possible ex. scheduling, controlled scrimmages, exhibition games etc. Kinesiology- Lecture 26 (Friday) Nov. 11/11 Cooperation (Orlick, 1978 and Coakley 1994) - Reduce competitiveness and experiences of failure in sport (for younger children) - Develop positive behaviors and attitudes about sport and reduce or eliminate hostility and conflict = emphasis on cooperative elements of participation - Promote common goals, group productivity and achievement situations - Reduce the stress of competitive involvement especially in younger participants Participants usually experience higher levels of competitive stress: -in individual sports rather than in team sports -in more important games -when a contest is lost or tied -when the person has high trait anxiety Implications 1.) Emphasize cooperative activities at younger ages 2.) Relate the outcome of the contest to the goals set prior to the competition 3.) Define what winning and losing mean to you and the team - “Losing may hurt, but it’s not a bad thing!” - the coach must act as a stabilizing influence when stress results from losing - one of the most important responsibilities for a coach is to put winning into proper perspective and being there to sooth or mediate the emotional side-effects of the losing - success is not forever, and failure is not fatal 4.) Competition is not inh
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