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Lecture 2

Lecture 2.docx

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Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

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Lecture 2 Methods/Ways of Knowing…Anything Psychological development is just like that of physical; we learn through practice and integrate that learning into performing. 1. Scientific Method/Experiments—applies theory/hypothesis to a large population 2. Systematic Observation—watching how things are done in sports (skills, methods), and learning from those observations 3. Single Case Study—watching ONE individual, and asking that person questions, just to learn skills/reactions from only them 4. Shared Public Experience—asking the public and taking from a shared, common opinion; utilizing this opinion./advice etc into your own method based on a shared common belief that has become a source of knowledge/motivation 5. Introspection (thoughts/feelings)—learning from a past experience and reflecting on it 6. Intuition (tacit knowledge)—what seems to the person to be logical, and learning via following out gut feeling Methods/Ways of Knowing in SPORT PSYCHOLOGY Any systematic study of sport psychology should include the following 4 stages: 1. Observation and Description—identify/define the essential characteristics of what you are trying to learn about (eg. stress management) 2. Explanation and Analysis—why things worked out the way they did initially; attempt to provide reasons for your observations and descriptions (eg distraction and booing from audience causes stress therefore poor performance) 3. Prediction—use the knowledge obtained to predict future occurrences should you follow the explanation of step one 4. Control —how can we control the situation so we can learn and improve; coming up with ways in which we can control and change our behavior/performance Research Methods Scientific Method Founded on the concept of objectivity (lack of bias/researched are detached observers and manipulators of nature), it is a process or method of learning that uses systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical filtering of knowledge acquired through experience. “Empirical” means observing specific aspects and categorizing them, thus leading to theorization of the norm vs. the other category Six steps of the scientific method: 1. Formulation of a specific hypothesis (before any experimentation is conducted) 2. Design of the investigation (figuring out controls, groups, placebos, etc) 3. Accumulation of data based on the design set 4. Classification of data (empirically done) 5. Development of generalizations 6. Verification of results (via reapplication of design on other groups and seeing if results are the same) These steps provide scientists with a way of collecting reliable and va
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