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Competition as a Motivator.docx

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Kinesiology 1088A/B

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Competition as a Motivator November 9, 2011 Competition  A strong motivational force imbedded in all sporting situations and in many recreational settings as well. However, the coach or leader has very little control over it Descriptors  A situational process that is either zero sum or non-zero sum (reward structures)  Is either direct or indirect Zero Sum  Winner gets +1, loser gets -1  Both outcomes counteract  More competitive Non-Zero Sum  Enhancing situation to become more enjoyable  Contest is a little closer  More cooperative Direct Competition  Competing against an individual Indirect Competition  Against a standard (speed, height, etc.) Cooperation  Working together with others to accomplish a task or reach a common goal Competition and cooperative can be at work at the same time on any team or group (ie. cooperate with teammates vs opponent but compete with them for starting role or playing time) Competition = fairness vs decompetition = rival (pg. 105) The Competitive Process (Martens, 1975)  Each individual experiences the competitive process differently and it may vary from one situation to another within the same person  The competitive process is primarily focused on social evaluation (comparison with others or standards)  Linked stages often influenced by external feedback and rewards Objective Competitive Situation Attitudes Personality Dispositions Consequences Subjective Competition Situation Motives Abilities Response 1. Objective Competitve Situation  Comparison criteria is know by oth
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