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Presence of Others as a Motivator.docx

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Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
Kinesiology 1088A/B
Professor
Prof

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Presence of Others as a Motivator October 19, 2011 Others= spectators or audience (observers) = cofactors (others doing same task – rivals) Theories to Explain Influence “Others” Have on Performance: a) Social Facilitation Theory (Zajonc, 1965) - The mere presence of others serves to increase arousal levels and cause a response to occur faster or more intensely 1. Increased arousal levels will increase the likelihood that an individual’s DOMINANT response will occur 2. In simple, well learned skills, correct respsones and improved performance occurs in the presence of others 3. In complex or newly learned skills, the dominant response may be incorrect (old or bad habits) and performance will be impaired in the presence of others Presence of Others Beginning Learning Stage Intermediate Learning Stage Highest Learning Stage Harmful Slightly Harmful or Beneficial or No Beneficial Apparent Effect b) Evaluation Apprehension (Cottrell, 1972) It is not just the presence of others that causes arousal. Rather, it is the expectation that those present will judge or evaluate the QUALITY of the performance that increases arousal and influences performance effectiveness. - we learn to associate others with praise/blame or reward/punish type of evaluations - an audience can thus have either an arousing or calming effect and produce resultant variations in performance or behaviour (Drive Theory) c) Cognitive Approach (Borden, 1980) Incorporates both of the above theories but takes it a step further - the performer is not simply a reactor who responds to an audience or to cofactors - the performer is a PROACTIVE participant who: - interprets the social situation (through perceptions and expectations)
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