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Self-Confidence as a Motivator.docx

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Kinesiology 1088A/B

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Self-Confidence as a Motivator November 11, 2011 It is possible to have either too much or too little confidence Definitions: Self-confidence: a general feeling of mastery (personality trait); belief that you can successfully perform a task Self-efficacy: (Bandura, 1977) confidence in a specific situation (not necessarily confident in all situations) (state); the strength of an individual’s conviction that he/she can successfully execute a behaviour, perform a task, or handle a situation to produce a desired result  Self- efficacy combined with an incentive to succeed and the ability to succeed to produce a successful performance Sport Confidence (Vealey, 1986)  Belief by an athlete that they possess the ability to be successful in sport  Can be either state or trait (ability at one particular moment; or applicable to all sports in general) A) Self-efficacy influences the degree of effort and persistence given to a task and thus effects the performance of the task ie. Weinberg (1979) leg extension endurance  Tested subjects in direct competition with another person  Manipulated self-efficacy by saying other was either a track athlete or post-knee surgery rehab subject  Given two trials and told lost the first one Performance difference were maximized after a failure situation (more or less effort/persistence) B) Self-efficacy is both a cause and an effect of performance ie. Feltz (1982)  Tested female college students on backward dive performance and evaluated approach/avoidance tendencies  If did first dive successfully = higher self-efficacy and future performance  If didn’t = lower self-efficacy and avoidance of future attempts Confidence leads to success, and success leads to confidence (later stronger due to recent performance success) C) Expectations influence self-efficacy and, in turn, effect performance a) Self-expectation increases potential for successful outcomes (if you believe that you can, you often can do) b) Expectations, biases and stereotypes can act as Self-Fulfilling Prophecy  Individuals often behave as they believe they are expected to behave (Pygmalion – expectations from others come true) Sources of Expectations (pg. 325-329) i. Information from others (blind date) ii. Past experience (judging sports events) iii. Physical appearance (first impressions)  Stereotypical assessment give biased expectations  Examples: People who wear glasses – smart People who smile – friendly iv. Age, size, gender, body type c) Biases and expectations influence subsequent social interaction High expectations =  More attention and feedback  Greater challenges and more opportunity Low expectations =  Fewer opportunity and less time to respond  Less praise; less feedback; more criticism  Reward for inappropriate responses  Less non-verbal communication (smiling) Sources of Self-Efficacy (pg. 330) 1. Performance accomplishments  Performance exposure (actually do it)  Participant modeling – watch others perform then do it yourself with instructor assistance  Desensitization – gradual exposure through a series of less threatening tasks  Self-instruction (mental rehearsal) 2. Vicarious experience Modeling  Using someone
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