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Sept 19th&21st - Chapter 6 Intrinsic&Extrinsic Motivation Lecture Notes.docx

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Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

Intrinsic Interest as a Motivator September 19th 1. Intrinsic Motivation:  The desire to participate in an activity or task for its own sake – enjoyment, excitement, challenge  Innate need to feel competent and self-determining when dealing with one’s environment  Characterized by an ongoing process of seeking and attempting to conquer challenger that are optimal for one’s ability How to measure intrinsic motivation a) Free choice involvement in an activity – time spent b) Presence of performance quality – complexity, creativity, flexibility, spontaneity c) Self-report questionnaires – interest, enjoyment, satisfaction 2. Extrinsic Motivation:  Behaviour engaged in for reasons other than the activity itself – external rewards  Activity becomes a means to an end – a way to an external rewards or comply with the demands of others  Produces a feeling of external control resulting in compliance and defiance and is manifested by feelings of pressure, tension or apprehension (lack of potential) Intrinsic and extrinsic motives are on a continuum, they are interactive but not additive (can compete or co-operate with one another) How external rewards influence intrinsic interest has been analyzed in two ways: 1. Empirical approach – research based 2. Cognitive Evaluation Theory:  Evaluates how an individual perceives the impact of external reward and thus the effect this perception has on his/her intrinsic motivation (enhance it or undermine it)  A sub theory of the self-determination theory – 3 basic psychological needs: reflectance, relatedness & autonomy  Thus a reward can be perceived to have a controlling or an informational function 3. Control – Locus of causality  If external it weakens Int. Mot.  If internal it enhances Int. Mot. 4. Information – about one’s competence  Greater perceived competence enhances Int. Mot.  Diminished perceived competence decrease Int. Mot. Salience: The importance attributed to a reward will determine how it is perceived by the recipient Other Empirical propositions:  The gender of the reward recipient influences the interpretation of the reward – this is gradually changing in today’s society  Wrestlers & female athletes – increases Int. Mot. As it provides information on competence since scholarships not given to them as often  The age of the reward recipient influence the interpretation of the reward o As kids grow older they tend to view rewards more as a bribe (control)  Extrinsic rewards are associated with work (payment, promotion, success/status)  Intrinsic rewards are associated with play (mastery, skill acquisition, challenge, excitement) In sport & exercise, concentrate on providing intrinsic rewards – avoid feelings of work (stay in a cycle of play and enjoyment)  Competition and a focus on winning can ac
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