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Oct 31st - Presence of Others as a Motivator (Spectators).docx

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Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

Presence of Others as a Motivator st October 31 Others = spectators or audience (observers) = cofactors (other doing some task – rivals) A. Social Facilitation Theory (Zajonc, 1965) The more presence of other serves to increase arousal levels and cause a response to occur faster or more intensely 1. Increased arousal will increase the likelihood that an individual’s DOMINANT response will occur 2. In simple, well learned skills, correct responses and improved performance occurs in the presence of others 3. In complex or newly learned skills, the dominant response may be incorrect (old or bad habits) and performance will be impaired in the presence of others B. Evaluation apprehension (Cottrell, 1972) It is not just the presence of others that causes arousal. Rather, it is the expectation that those present will judge or evaluate the QUALITY of the performance that increases arousal and influences performance effectiveness  We learn to associate others with praise/blame or reward/punish type of evaluations  An audience can thus have either an arousing or a calming effect and produce resultant variations in performance or behaviour (Drive Theory) C. Cognitive approach (Borden, 1980) Incorporates both of the above theories but takes it a step further The performer is not simply a reactor who responds to an audience or cofactors The performer is PROACTIVE participant who:  Interprets the social situation (through perception and expectations)  Predict the possible audience reactions  And alters behaviour to appeal to this reaction  Previous experience, age, gender & personality will all influence the individuals subjective interpretation of the social situation  The size of the
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