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Nov 30th - Aggression in Sport.docx

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Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

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Chapter 23 - Aggression in Sport Definition: Any form of overt, intentional behaviour directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment (Baron, 1994) Aggression is: a physical or verbal behaviour, not an attitude or emotion - Involves injury or harm - Is directed toward another living organism (can be oneself, animal/pet, etc) - Has intent - Can be physical or psychological Aggression is NOT Assertiveness- intense or highly motivated performance (tenacious, confident, legitimate acts of force or strategy) - Dominance or leadership Aggression comes in two forms: Hostile (reactive) - violent (an end in itself- inflict injury) (bar fight) Instrumental - a means to a non-violent end (used to intimidate or exert psychological pressure) Most aggression in sport is instrumental. Causes of Aggression- Theories 1. Instinct Theory - Aggression is an innate drive that builds up until it must inevitably expressed or released - Direct attacks or displaced through catharsis- blow off steam through some socially acceptable means (sports - which is seen as a healthy safety valve or civilized substitute for war) - There is no evidence that we have an instinct for aggression or that it can be dissipated through catharsis (actual exposure to aggression [seeing or doing in a more acceptable way] often serves as a catalyst for more overt aggression) 2. Frustration-Aggression Theory - Aggression results from frustration that is experienced when a goal is blocked or is failed to be achieved - Found that frustration does not always lead to aggression- people learn to cope with frustration or become depressed and withdraw - However aggression is very often the response to frustration 3. Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1973) - Aggression is a learned behaviour - Developed by observation of others or through direct experience - Observe other (MODELLING) aggressive bahaviour - Act out similar behaviour and also get reinforced for doing so (bobo dolls- kids watch adults beat up dolls- more likely to do the same) - Expect rewards (verbal, pat on back, more playing time, etc.) for being aggressive
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