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Lecture 18

Kin lecture 18

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Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

Anxiety -A negative emotional state characterized by nervousness, worry and apprehension. - Has cognitive (mental) component (worry and apprehension etc.) and a somatic (physiological) component (^ heart or breathing, sweating, nausea, “butterflies”, faint) Arousal Theories 1. Drive Theory (Spense, 1966) -Performance = f(habit/drive_ -linear relationship between arousal and performance ( as arousal increases so does performance) -impact dependent on how well the task is learned (social facilitation theory) There is no longer much support for this theory NOTE: arousal/ anxiety/ stress/ are not always a bad thing 2. Inverted U Hypothesis – There are optimal levels of arousal – Once reach optimal level, performance deteriorates if you continue to become more aroused or activated. – Is a zone not a point (IZOF- Hanin) – Varies from person to person – Different task have optimal zones 1. Catastrophe Theory ( Hardy 1996) – Somatic anxiety can have markedly different effects on performance depending on the cognitive anxiety (worry) experienced. – If worry low- inverted U relationship. – If worry is high- activation reaches an optimal threshold after which there is a dramatic or “catastrophic” decline in performance. – Difficult to recover from once experienced. 1. Reversal Theory (Aapter & Kerr, 1984/85) – It is the cognitive interpretation of one’s arousal level that impacts performance – High arousal levels= excitements or anxiety. – Low arousal levels= relaxation or boredom Pleasant OR unpleasant – Individuals a
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