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Kin 1088A- Chapter 3 (motivation).doc

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Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

Sport Psychology: Chapter 3 Ben Markowitz Motivation Cont’d Some motivational factors can be easily changed while others are more difficult to influ- ence. Guidelines to Building Motivation: 1. Both the situation and personal traits motivate participants 2. It is important for a leader to understand what motivates a participant - multiple motives (e.g. lifting weights for body image and for a social activity) - competing motives (e.g. exercise after work but also be with family) - shared and/or unique motives - motives change over time (People have different interests as they get older) 3. Structure or change to the environment to enhance motivation. Appealing to an indi- vidual’s motivation. 4. Critical role of the leader in influencing the motivation of the participants (coaching style) 5. Undesirable motives can be changed through behavior modification techniques (neg- ative motivations can be changed to positive motivations) Token Rewards As Motivators **3 lectures will be spent on chapter 6** Reward: “things” used to modify or manipulate behavior- material reward -Used as a motivational factor Reinforcement: Personal interactions- verbal and non-verbal (more info. later) Token rewards- also known as: Behavior modification Operant Conditioning (manipulating behavior based on its consequence) Token economies **Contingency Management** Contingency: relationship between a behavior and its consequence. Contingency Management: The regulation of behavior by use of tokens to influence or alter outcomes Examples of token rewards: • trophies • food • freedom • love • recognition • stars/decals Sport Psychology: Chapter 3 Ben Markowitz • free time • privileges • MONEY Undesirable behaviors can be eliminated through use of token rewards. E.G-text p.134- Change behavior of a swim team - attendance board was created (public) - group competitions (intensity) Desirable behaviors can be enhanced through the use of token rewards. E.G.-text p.134- Improve supportive and positive communication and increase shooting of a BB team - point systems for incidents and success in practice - Daily public posting of point earned. Token rewards have a spill over effect on non-target behaviors E.G. Jones 1977- Improve skills at a summer B.B camp - earn colored rings for skill execution that can be changed for a variety of rewards at tuck shop Other observed spillover effects from the research - satisfaction enjoyment - attendance and promptness - interested and attitudes - conformance to rules - social interaction (coach/athlete) - statements of approval- less “bitching” Token r
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