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Kin Lecture #2 - Sept 10 2012.docx

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Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob La Rose

September 10, 2012 Kinesiology Lecture #2 Methods/Ways of Knowing (How do we know or learn things) 1. Scientific Method/Experiments  Conducting an experiment and applying the results to a theory – not usually used by trainers/coaches etc. 2. Systematic Observation  Watch the best, learn by observation (try doing the same skills) – observe the practiced and experienced individuals in attempt to improve personal performance 3. Single Case Study  Ask individual for information, learn how people react to one situation – observes a single individual in order to specifically help them and benefit the individual 4. Shared Public Experience  Get positive responses from more than one person, ask many people the same question and observe responses – compare opinions with those of the general public as well (coach and assistant coach evaluating opponents) 5. Introspection (thoughts/feelings)  Gain knowledge on how best to perform ourselves, when we experience a situation ourselves and then analyze it 6. Intuition (tacit knowledge)  Perform based on what is implied or what feels right, without actually doing it – tacit knowledge, bases decisions on personal thoughts (plays one person over another with equal skill because it feels right) Ways of Knowing in Sport Psychology Any systematic study of sport psychology should include the following stages: 1. Observation and Description (what is?)  Identify or define the essential characteristics 2. Explanation and Analysis (why?)  Attempt to provide a reason for how I performed; Why did I perform the way I did? 3. Prediction (what will be?)  Use the knowledge obtained to predict future occurrences; what adjustments do I need to be successful 4. Control (how can we?)  What do we control so we can change the behavior or performance? Scientific Method  Founded on the concept of objectivity (lack of bias – researchers are detached observers and manipulators of nature)  It’s a process or method of learning that uses systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical filtering of knowledge acquired through experience  Dictates a systematic approach to studying a question  Involves a control of conditions  Its empirical – based on observation  Its critical – involves rigorous evaluation by researcher and other Six Steps of the Scientific Method: 1. Formulation of a specific hypothesis 2. Design of the investigation 3. Accumulation of data 4. Classification of Data 5. Development of generalizations 6. Verification of results September 10, 2012 These steps provide scientists with a way of collecting reliable and valid (internal) data that can then be used to develop generalizable theorie
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