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Kin Lecture #2 - Sept 10, 2012.docx

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Western University
Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob La Rose

September 10, 2012 Kinesiology Lecture #2 Methods/Ways of Knowing (How do we know or learn things) 1. Scientific Method/Experiments  Conducting an experiment and applying the results to a theory 2. Systematic Observation  Watch the best, learn by observation (try doing the same skills) 3. Single Case Study  Ask individual for information, learn how people react to one situation 4. Shared Public Experience  Get positive responses from more than one person, ask many people the same question and observe responses 5. Introspection (thoughts/feelings)  Gain knowledge on how best to perform ourselves, when we experience a situation ourselves 6. Intuition (tacit knowledge)  Perform based on what is implied or what feels right, without actually doing it Ways of Knowing in Sport Psychology Any systematic study of sport psychology should include the following stages: 1. Observation and Description (what is?)  Identify or define the essential characteristics 2. Explanation and Analysis (why?)  Attempt to provide a reason for how I performed; Why did I perform the way I did? 3. Prediction (what will be?)  Use the knowledge obtained to predict future occurrences; what adjustments do I need to be successful 4. Control (how can we?)  What do we control so we can change the behavior or performance? Scientific Method  Founded on the concept of objectivity (lack of bias – researchers are detached observers and manipulators of nature)  It’s a process or method of learning that uses systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical filtering of knowledge acquired through experience Six Steps of the Scientific Method: 1. Formulation of a specific hypothesis 2. Design of the investigation 3. Accumulation of data 4. Classification of Data 5. Development of
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