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Kin Lecture #3 - Sept 12 2012.docx

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Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob La Rose

September 12, 2012 Kinesiology Lecture #3 Definition of Motivation:  The DIRECTION (approach/avoid), and INTENSITY (high/low) of one’s EFFORT o DIRECTION OF EFFORT – whether an individual seeks out, approaches or is attracted to certain situations o INTESITY OF EFFORT – how much effort an individual puts forth in a particular situation  Sometimes motivation is participant oriented (we motivate ourselves to do something)  Sometimes it is situation oriented (motivated to do something based on the situation)  Or an interaction of both Some motivational factors can be easily changed (goal setting, reinforcement, attribution, self-confidence) while others are more difficult to influence (presence of others, anxiety, focus of attention) Guidelines: 1. Both the situation and personal traits motivate participants 2. It’s important for a leader and the participant to understand what motivates an individual  Multiple motives (individuals are motivated by different things)  Competing motives  Shared and/or unique motives  Motives change over time 3. Structure or change the environment to enhance motivation 4. Critical role of the leader in influencing the motivation of the participants (coaching style) 5. Undesirable motives can be changed through Behaviour Modification techniques Token Rewards as Motivators  Reward: ‘Things’ used to modify or manipulate behavior – material rewards  Reinforcement: Personal interactions – verbal and non verbal (more info later)  Token Rewards – also known as o Behavior modification o Operate conditioning o Token economics o Contingency management  Contingency – relationship between a behavior and its consequence  Contingency Management – the regulation of behavior by use of tokens to influence or alter outcomes
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