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Lecture 4

Kinesiology 2230A/B Lecture 4: Adaptation Lecture 4

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Western University
Kinesiology 2230A/B
Glen Belfry

Lecture 4 April 7 ,2017 Other Exercise Changes • Body composition o Reduce adipose tissue (using more fat as substrate/fuel) o Balance energy expenditure – energy intake (nutrition o Carbohydrates – protein – fiber • Increased lean body mass o Weight training = increase resistant training o More muscle mass = more calories burned (increase BMR) even at rest • Decreased cholesterol and triglycerides o Atherosclerosis – fatty deposits that occur in the veins = coronary and peripheral artery disease (increase activity levels so you can use these fats so they don’t build up in arteries and veins) o Reduced coronary and peripheral artery disease o Reduction in diabetes – much easier to manage diabetes if people are exercising • Skeleton – bone health o Increased load helps to mold and strengthen bones (decrease osteoporosis) ▪ Weight bearing – increased bone density ▪ The greater the impact of the activity, the higher bone density is going to be – makes bones stronger ▪ Bone density is directly affected by load on bones themselves (every time you run you are close to double your body weight – your legs/bones have to absorb this force) ▪ Be involved regularly in high load conditions ▪ High load can just be as easy as walking o Exercise is valuable for aged ▪ Falls reduction and protection ▪ Decreased bone density happens naturally with age – less activity, bone density decreases ▪ Exercise is critical (high impact – weight training) to maintain bone density and delay onset of bone loss disease Factors Influencing Training • Specificity – the more sport specific the training, the better o The more specific the energy systems to the movements; the power and the strength, to the muscle groups involved in the activity, the better performances the people will have • Overload – continued improvement will not occur unless physiological systems are continuously overloaded o You need overload (have to stress the system); it’s either volume or intensity or frequency of the training has to increase o As soon as you lose that overload situation, you stop having physiological adaptation o That tends to be one of the biggest problems in weight training programs: people work hard for the first few months where everything is increasing (overload situation), but then after 2/3 months, there’s not that continual increase in the stress that you are putting the muscles under o Overload is important and you have to continually increase the overload • Benefit gained in systems other than VO2 max, strength and power (skill, efficiency) from increased frequency and duration of training may assist elite athletes o Another component of training, which is independent of the actual physiological changes, is the changes that associated with skill development, which relates to the efficiency o Most sports require many hours and repetitions of work particular to that sport – have to be very skilled, which can take a lot of time Lecture 4 April 7 ,2017 o A lot of hours [elite populations] they spend isn’t necessarily from the physiological adaptation, but through those neuromuscular adaptations that come with that interaction between the brain and the particular movements require for that sport Fiber Recruitment Sport Specificity • Looked at a number o
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