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Lecture 2

Kinesiology 2230A/B Lecture 2: Adaptation Lecture 2

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Western University
Kinesiology 2230A/B
Glen Belfry

Lecture 2 April 3 , 2017 Blood Pressure During Strength Training • Looking at blood pressure changes during strength training • 3 sets of 10 – had 3 mins of rest between each set • During the concentric contraction phase, there’s an increase in SBP (systolic blood pressure) o Continuous increase from set to set o SBP came back to normal after each set but elevated as it got to the third set • Saw the same thing during DBP (diastolic blood pressure) o Notice, that in between contractions, their DP is fairly normal (hasn’t increased that much) but during contraction phase, there is an increase to somewhere around 120mmHg • You really don’t have that many contractions during a workout o Even though there is significant stress (blood pressure) that is being generated by the heart, it really doesn’t happen that often when you compare it to endurance running or cycling, for example, where you have thousands of contractions occurring • With an increased mass of the left ventricle from the endurance training, they are able to generate greater pressures – force of contractility is increasing with the increase of ventricular mass Endurance Athletes • Looking at if you have an increase in stroke volume with endurance exercise • Comparing HR between control subjects and athletes • CO (oxygen consumption) is going to be the same at rest, but because athletes have that large increase in SV, HR is going to be lower • Heart mass – more heart mass has been expressed over the years of training (in trained athletes) Left Ventricular Hypertrophy with Training • Ventricular diameter – indicative of chamber size o Runners and cyclist both have larger chamber size (ventricular diameter) than strength athletes, which relates to SV • Wall thickness o Large increase in wall thickness in the cyclists (red bar). How does this happen? ▪ The contraction durations, how long the muscle is working, remembering that as the muscle contracts, it will occlude blood flow. As the muscle gets larger, the muscle shortens you compress the capillary system and that’s going to increase BP’s. ▪ Cyclists tend to (especially as they work harder and harder), push bigger and bigger gears (i.e. back wheels will spin a lot faster compared to the revolutions of the front wheels) and what that does is they are generating much greater forces than compared to running and because Lecture 2 April 3 , 2017 of this, you will have greater occlusion of blood flow with the larger vasculature that is feeding that muscle group • Heart has to generate more pressure (has to be stronger) to maintain blood flow • Same response in left ventricular mass o High correlation between wall thickness and left ventricular mass • Depending on the stimulus, (how often the heart has to generate more pressures), as far as comparing that to cycling and running, you won’t have the same frequency of contraction Stroke Volume EDV changes in SV post training • As SV increases, that means at the same HR, you are going to deliver more oxygen = producing more ATP aerobically • EDV continues to increase, especially as you get to the higher intensities for the trained individual o i.e. filling is greater post-training ESV changes in SV post training • At rest, pre-training ESV’s are greater (i.e. have more blood remaining in the ventricle after ejection in the trained individual) o This reduces SV, but that increase in filling (that increase in EDV) is much greater than that increase in ESV • As the intensity increases, ESV decreases o Now, you are pumping more blood out of the heart o Which means filling is greater (EDV is greater) and this will give you a greater SV Lecture 2 April 3 , 2017 EF changes in SV post training • EF = the percentage of the total EDV being ejected • EF is similar (post- and pre-training) at rest but as intensity increases, EF is greater in the trained individual • Filling is greater, and so you are pumping more blood out of that greater filling volume HR changes associated with SV post training • Going to see Lower HR’s post-training at rest in all intensities of exercise o Q is the same at any given work rate • Maximum HR (untrained vs. trained) is usually very close – sometimes will see slightly lower max rates in the highly-trained individuals but not that much of a difference o Same max HR but greater SV = increased CO Cardiac output changes associated post training • Greater CO post training • As CO increases = delivering more oxygen = more ATP available = don’t have to be working anaerobically = not producing lactate Lecture 2 April 3 , 2017 Cardiorespiratory Adaptations • SV is greater in aerobically trained at all intensity levels o This is a result of increased
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