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Kinesiology 2230A/B
Glen Belfry

Ex. Phys Sept. 11, 2013 Western Rowing - For the start they have to overcome momentum; lot of mass that they have to overcome - Stroke rate: with wind more stroke, against wind, less strokes - Lots of anaerobic training but since the race is long, there is a lot of aerobic training as well Metabolism The primary factors affecting energy productions are total energy demand coupled with rate of demand. The ATP-PcR system is used for the first few seconds (up to around 10 seconds). Then the anaerobic glycolytic system is activated which lasts for around few minutes and then lastly the aerobic system is activated for the longer duration period. The second graph represents the power of these energy systems. Kcals/LO2 Vs. Kcals/g Oxygen we breathe gets used at the end of the Electron Transport Chain; by measuring oxygen uptake at the mouth, it will tell us what is happening at the end of the Electron Transport Chain. We are relating the oxygen that we use to energy. Oxygen at the end of ETC will represent the movement of the ETC. CHO gives us 5.05 kcals/LO and stores only 4.1 kcals/g; while fat yields only 4.69 kcals/LO but stores 2 2 9.4 kcal/g. Burning carbohydrate give us more energy than burning fat, but fat stores more energy (mass). Carbohydrates give more energy in terms of oxygen usage but in regards to mass, fat stores double the energy than carbohydrates. REMEMBER! Carbohydrate is stored with water and 1g of CHO is stored with 2.7g of water. Therefore, 4.1 kcals/g is stored with 3.7g (1g CHO + 2.7g water). Series of glucose molecules are bound by water give us glycogen. Free Energy Change (∆G)  energy that is released in a particular reaction that will do work (energy release is a negative change)  exergonic reaction; exergonic reactions may occur spontaneously; energy is leaving the reaction When energy is required for a reaction (adding energy for the reaction to occur), it is known as endergonic reaction (positive ∆G). Endergonic reactions can only occur when coupled to exergonic reactions. When the energy is released from an exergonic reaction, we can use that energy in another reaction (endergonic) which consumes that energy. A common reaction is that when energy is released through an exergonic reaction, it then goes to react with inorganic phosphate and ADP to make ATP. Then Creatine (Cr) comes along and reacts with ATP to make PCr which will spontaneously react and release energy and the cycle begins again. Energy Release  Breaking down the CHO (glucose), goes to glycolysis, then you get pyruvate which then goes to Kreb’s cycle  As this process occurs, energy is lost along the way  At the beginning, we have storage of glucose and glycogen (high potential energy); as it goes through the series of reactions in glycolysis, Kreb’s cycle; there will be less and less energy going to be available from that original glucose molecule  Eventually, as the reactions move towards equilibrium; when you start off with high potential energy, energy will be released and when equilibrium is met, there will be no energy available to do work Energy Flux The more substrate, the faster that reaction is going to move; as the reaction goes from A + B  C + D, the reaction will begin to go slowly and the difference in free energy will decrease because there will be a build up of C + D. As the it reaches equilibrium (∆G = 0) and there will no flux. Control Reaction Rate Controlling Reaction rate: Substrate concentration & enzyme activity The more substrate you have, the faster the reaction can happen. Enzymes are capable of speeding up reaction. In
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