Sept. 11, 2013
- For the start they have to overcome momentum; lot of mass that they have to overcome
- Stroke rate: with wind more stroke, against wind, less strokes
- Lots of anaerobic training but since the race is long, there is a lot of aerobic training as well
The primary factors affecting energy productions are total energy demand coupled with rate of demand.
The ATP-PcR system is used for the first few seconds (up to around 10 seconds). Then the anaerobic
glycolytic system is activated which lasts for around few minutes and then lastly the aerobic system is
activated for the longer duration period.
The second graph represents the power of these energy systems.
Kcals/LO2 Vs. Kcals/g
Oxygen we breathe gets used at the end of the Electron Transport Chain; by measuring oxygen uptake at
the mouth, it will tell us what is happening at the end of the Electron Transport Chain. We are relating
the oxygen that we use to energy. Oxygen at the end of ETC will represent the movement of the ETC.
CHO gives us 5.05 kcals/LO and stores only 4.1 kcals/g; while fat yields only 4.69 kcals/LO but stores
9.4 kcal/g. Burning carbohydrate give us more energy than burning fat, but fat stores more energy
(mass). Carbohydrates give more energy in terms of oxygen usage but in regards to mass, fat stores
double the energy than carbohydrates.
REMEMBER! Carbohydrate is stored with water and 1g of CHO is stored with 2.7g of water. Therefore,
4.1 kcals/g is stored with 3.7g (1g CHO + 2.7g water). Series of glucose molecules are bound by water
give us glycogen. Free Energy Change (∆G)
energy that is released in a particular reaction that will do work (energy release is a negative
change) exergonic reaction; exergonic reactions may occur spontaneously; energy is leaving
When energy is required for a reaction (adding energy for the reaction to occur), it is known as
endergonic reaction (positive ∆G).
Endergonic reactions can only occur when coupled to exergonic reactions. When the energy is released
from an exergonic reaction, we can use that energy in another reaction (endergonic) which consumes
that energy. A common reaction is that when energy is released through an exergonic reaction, it then
goes to react with inorganic phosphate and ADP to make ATP. Then Creatine (Cr) comes along and
reacts with ATP to make PCr which will spontaneously react and release energy and the cycle begins
Breaking down the CHO (glucose), goes to
glycolysis, then you get pyruvate which then goes to
As this process occurs, energy is lost along
At the beginning, we have storage of
glucose and glycogen (high potential energy); as it
goes through the series of reactions in glycolysis,
Kreb’s cycle; there will be less and less energy going
to be available from that original glucose molecule
Eventually, as the reactions move towards
equilibrium; when you start off with high potential energy, energy will be released and when
equilibrium is met, there will be no energy available to do work
The more substrate, the faster that reaction is going to move; as the reaction goes from A + B C + D,
the reaction will begin to go slowly and the difference in free energy will decrease because there will be
a build up of C + D. As the it reaches equilibrium (∆G = 0) and there will no flux.
Control Reaction Rate
Controlling Reaction rate: Substrate concentration & enzyme activity
The more substrate you have, the faster the reaction can happen. Enzymes are capable of speeding up