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Kinesiology 2230A/B
Glen Belfry

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Ex. Phys Sept. 13, 2013 Soccer - Soccer is only 10% anaerobic; usually 80% walking/jogging around; so most of the time they are recovering from the short during of high intensity movements; need to be aerobically fit - However, the average HR is high (170) Rate-Limiting  Regulatory enzymes = slowest activity enzymes (phosphosfructokinase)  The point in a metabolic pathway where ultimate control (slowest reaction) is exerted Enzymes  Enzymes reduces the amount of energy required for that reaction to work; reconfigures the shape of the active site changes for quicker reactions; the effect of the catalyst (enzyme) is to lower the free energy of activation for the reaction  Change of free energy will be negative (releasing energy); we are losing energy in that particular reaction  Also, raising the temperature raises the average energy of A molecules increases reaction rate (more reactions will occur); you are adding energy to reach closer to the required activation energy; in contrast, the average free energy of A molecules remains the same in un-catalyzed versus catalyzed reactions (conducted at the same temperature) Co-factors & Co-enzymes o Change the shape of the enzyme and then there is a co-enzyme that matches the enzyme and the substrate; Co-enzyme is part of the active site which matches up with the enzyme and substrate to enable the reaction to occur o Co-enzymes can reconfigure the active site allowing multiple reactions to occur o Co-factors are non-protein component of the enzyme itself; they are organic and come from things that grow; vitamins Anaerobic System Power perspective: Phosphocreatine system will be active for a short duration (ATP being broken down). This system is used when there a maximum effort given for a short duration that is very explosive. After reaching 10 seconds, phosphocreatine system will be depleted; as we use PCr to maintain the energy levels, that’s when the glycolytic pathway happens (breaking down carbohydrates to give energy; and eventually that becomes depleted. ATP-PCr System  Immediate, Phosphogen  ATP is the high energy compound used to fuel exercise  ATP use can occur very rapidly  Cells contain a storage form of high energy known as phosphocreatine (PCr) or creatine phosphate (CP) For discus, its going to be ATP use because it is only a few rotations and then throw as hard as you can.  There is much more PCr in the cell than ATP (4-5x more)  This system provides energy at a high rate but has a low capacity; eg. 3-15 sec in an all sprint  If you had a mutation that would make you not have PCr, your ability to make an all out effort for a short duration is very limited  During rest, you are going to regenerate ATP aerobically to form PCr Foundation of Energy Source - More energy is released when you release the first phosphate from ATP; release of phosphate from ADP can happen, but the energy release is not that great - The enzyme that’s critical here is myosin ATPase; difference between slow twitch and fast twitch fibers is that how much myosin ATPase is available to contract all the mechanisms - Slow twitch fibers just don’t as much of this enzyme; there is less ATP available to breakdown to get energy Recovery  During recovery (opposite direction of the reaction): We use a little bit of energy to bind the cleaved phosphate with the diphosphate giving us more ATP  More reactions in a pathway, slower the ability to regenerate energy  To maintain that high level of power outputs, you need to replenish that PCr with ATP  High levels of PCr, the longer you can maintain high level power outputs  More reactions, slower, less energy output  Creatine kinase breaks down phosphocreatine and gives you that energy to make ATP  ATP is being produced aerobically during recovery (elevated oxygen uptake) and this ATP helps regenerate more PCr;  Creatine kinase is a reversible reaction; which if it goes the other way, the enzyme will react creatine and inorganic phosphate to form PCr  ATP helps to regenerate PCr
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