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1. Metabolism Adaptation.docx

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Western University
Kinesiology 2230A/B
Glen Belfry

Training Adaptations to Exercise 1 Time motion analysis: what are the specific demands of a sport. Look at different energy system contributions from intensity and duration. Ex. basketball: must be aerobic but strength is extremely important, agility, high power outputs Ex. volleyball: jumping (must be light, better to be tall), ATP-PCr system, high VO2 max because of training repetitions Ex. Hockey: anaerobic, high ATP-PCr Specificity: must train energy systems effectively during practice time Effects of Training 1. Metabolism: Adaptation in energy production, means you can generate more ATP in a shorter period of time and for a longer period of time.  Muscle adapts to be more effective energy provider  Intensity and duration influence adaptation  Work/recovery periods are important and must match the sport 2. Cardiorespiratory 3. Muscular Specificity: must train energy systems effectively during practice time The stimulus is critical Metabolism Aerobic Training Objective: increased ability to use oxygen is accompanied by increase fuel supply and better control of metabolism Key points:  The more oxygen you can consume is indicative of the Increased capacity entire aerobic pathway’s power Increased fuel With resistance training leading to increased muscle mass, aerobicstorage capacity of the muscle actually decreases. Sparing CHO Increased Aerobic Capacity Increased mitochondrial size and number  Location of ETC and Kreb’s cycle  Increase in substrate concentration and enzyme concentration within cell Increase mitochondria therefore increase in enzyme activity  Enzymes will work faster  generates more energy Huge increase in Kreb’s cycle activity  Cleave off more H to send to ETC, generate more power  There is an increase in activity of succinate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase This results in an increased aerobic capacity. Aerobic Capacity means how high the VO2 max is. Aerobic capacity increases over time and gradually levels off. In a VO2 max test…  Number of breaths increases  Amount of O2 consumed increases Ability to use oxygen represents the capacity of the aerobic metabolic pathways Response to training period (ex. 7 months) • First month: initial large increase in VO2 max (12-13%) • Second month: (23% increase) • Third month: (26% increase) • In next three months there is very little change Increase of volume by increasing the training distance  from 2000 to 8000 m • After three months they double the distance but there is no change in maximal oxygen consumption Key point: Intensity has a huge effect on one’s ability to continue to increase their VO2 max • Even though these swimmers have doubled their volume, they can swim farther for longer periods of time.  If you are doing more, you must slow down. So with the increase in volume and therefore time, the change in VO2 max is lost. If you are looking to change VO2 max, you must constantly be reaching it in training  intensity is critical Over the 7 month period, there was a linear increase in SDH over the 7 month period. • Even though some of the adaptation has been lost (aerobic power not improving anymore) it is still having some effect on enzyme activity, which in the future may translate to VO2 max. Aerobic capacity increases over time and gradually levels off. Both duration and intensity of exercise are important on aerobic capacity adaptation. Mitochondrial Content  ETC, Kreb’s, Beta Oxidation Stimulus: 5 days a week for 8 weeks 90 minutes, relatively low intensity: • No change in mitochondrial content • Endurance many increase but ability to perform faster will not change 9
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