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Kin2276 - Chapter 4-5.docx

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Western University
Kinesiology 2276F/G
Craig Hall

Chapter 4: Stimulus–Response Theory & Integrative Approaches How People Learn New Behaviors - Classical conditioning:  A reflexive beh can be elicited through repeated pairings of beh with an antecedent cue  Doesn’t work for ex beh - Instrumental conditioning:  A voluntary beh can be learned by pairing the beh with consequent reinforcement  Used for ex beh S-R Theory - Future ex beh depends primarily on whether the exerciser experienced positive or negative outcomes following previous ex bouts - Similar to self-efficacy: rely on past experiences - Different with SE: previous experience directly affects future beh, there is no mediator More on S-R Theory - 4 types of events that can follow a beh affect future beh 1. Positive reinforcement 2. Negative reinforcement 3. Punishment 4. Extinction 1. Positive reinforcement - An enjoyable or pleasant outcome that makes a person feel good & that strengthens a particular beh  Intrinsic reinforcers: rewards that come from within oneself  Extrinsic reinforcers: rewards that come from other people (or that u give urself) 2. Negative reinforcement - Generally unpleasant or aversive stimuli that, when withdrawn after a beh, will increase the frequency of that beh in the future 3. Punishment - Unpleasant or uncomfortable stimulus encountered after a beh, decreasing the probability of that beh happening in the future - PA should & NEVER be used as a punishmt otherwise inds will come to see it as highly aversive 4. Extinction - Withholding a positive stimulus after a beh in order to decrease the likelihood of that beh happening again in the future - Eg: decreasing opportunities to socialize (for people who like to socialize when doing PA) Predictions of SRT Events that can follow a beh Descriptions of events Predicted effects on future ex beh 1. Pos. Adding smthin pos ($, praise) Increase ex reinforcement 2. Neg. reinfm’t Taking away smthin neg Increase ex (pain, depression) 3. Punishment Addin smthin neg (injury, Decrease ex embarrassment) 4. Extinction Taking away smthin pos Decrease ex (opportunities to socialize) Limitations of SRT - Does NOT consider the role of cognition or beliefs about an outcome: stimulus directly influences the response (no thinking or beliefs) - Limited in its ability to predict & explain ex beh - No info for developing interventions to change exercisers’ perceptions of a particular outcome September 27, 2013 Behavioral Economic Theory (BET) - Make highly reinforcing sedentary activities less attractive. Eg: competing activities - Integrates S-R Theory & basic research on cognitive psych & decision making - A way to help people make healthy choices about how they spend their leisure time - Eg of BET:  Sedentary activity – playing video game  Healthy activity – going outside & playing soccer with friends  Solution: if play video game, you have to do some chores around the house, if go outside & play, you don’t have to do chores  This makes playing video game normally attractive/enjoyable to the person become less attractive/enjoyable Integrative Approaches - Combine concepts from various theories & models to explain ex beh  Transtheoretical Model (TTM)  Social Ecological Model TTM - Behavior change is not a quick process but a gradual progression through a series of stages 5 Stages - Precontemplation  Contemplation  Preparation  Action  Maintenance - This approach was developed to apply for smokers to quit smoking - You can fall back to the previous stage or stuck at a stage - Usually, you don’t skip a stage but it’s possible to skip a stage 5 Stages of TTM 1. Precontemplation:  No intention to start exercising in the next 6 mons.  Most stable stage. Cons > Pros  Tend to apply to non-exercisers 2. Contemplation:  Intend to start exercising in the next 6 mons. Cons ≥ Pros 3. Preparation:  Intend to start exercising in immediate future. Pros > Cons  Taking actions to prepare to ex. Eg: buy new shoes/outfit, check out fitness club 4. Action:  Exercising at optimal levels for health & fitness;  Least stable stage: hard to avoid falling back into old lifestyles st  Eg: quit smoking & start smoking again. People can be vulnerable in the 1 year 5. Maintenance:  Exercising at optimal levels for 6 mons; easier to maintain routine than in action stg  Highly confident that they can continue their ex program How People Move Through The Stages - Movement involves changing the following:  How people think about ex  How people think about themselves – to develop ex identity  Environmental factors that influence ex beh - Changes occur thru a combination of 10 basic experiential & behavioral processes Experiential & Behavioral Processes (txt p. 85) - Experiential Processes: increase people’s awareness of, & change their thoughts & beliefs about, themselves & their ex beh - Behavioral Processes: change aspects of the environment that can affect ex participation PRINT TXT P. 85 How do we know someone is moving through the stages? - Shift in decisional balance:  List more pros than cons of exercising - Increase in SE to overcome temptations  Confidence that he/she can deal with high-risk situations that might tempt him/her to lapse into old sedentary ways  Should increase SE as we move through the stages of TTM September 30, 2013 Interventions for people in the various stages 1. Precontemplation:  Education about the link b/w ex & well-being (eg: videos). Think about PROS  Problem: people in this stage are non-exercisers so they don’t want to read ex info & content with their sedentary lifestyle 2. Contemplation:  Will you feel good about yourself as a “couch potato”?  Push the benefits of ex & disadvantages of current lifestyle  Problem: trying to find who’s in this stage vs. in the precomtemplation stage 3. Preparation:  Organize & start planning for new physically active lifestyle. Eg: plan out costs, find an ex partner, help set up goals & ex program  Help people to facilitate the start of the ex program  These are the people that we recruit for studies 4. Action:  Tips on overcoming barriers & maintaining motivation  Help people gain confidence & complimentary skills to stay motivated  This is where intervention comes into play: SE, scheduling 5. Maintenance:  Need to plan ahead & identify situations that might cause them to lapse  People at this stage are regular exercisers  provide support system Limitations of the TTM - Cannot reliably predict which stage a person will move to & when - Fail to fully explain the mechanisms by which people change their activity beh & move across the stages - Does not allow for the fact that many people do not exhibit a steady progression through the stages, they may skip forward or regress back – no explanation for why somebody skip/move backward a stage - Doesn’t distinguish different types of SE (task, coping, scheduling) - Might work for other behaviors (smoking) but not good for exercising Social Ecological Models - These are theories b/c they integrate other theories – MOST FRAUD THEORIES - Consider ind influence on health beh as well as other levels of influence on health behs:  Physical environment  Community  Society New additions from other theories  Government - Each person is significantly affected by interactions among overlapping ecosystems - Ecosystems: relationship b/w community of living things with each other & their phyc’l envirmt - At each level, different theories & models can be used to explain PA beh & create PA interventns SEM’s A SEM for PA - Supportive environments = increased PA in community. Eg: bike path, provide free bicycles - Community agencies & groups can influence policies to support PA environments.  Increase availability & access to facilities/programs: open longer hours  Active transportation: sidewalks, bike paths Limitations of SEMs - Time & cost of:  Changing environments & policies  Creating community-wide incentive & education programs - Building fitness facilities does NOT guarantee that people will use them October 2, 2013 Chapter 5: Social Influences on Ex Social Influence - Def’n: real or imagined pressure to change one’s beh, attitudes, or beliefs. Can come from doctors, fitness leaders, family members, & so on. - An understanding of this pressure may lead to the development of interventions that use social influence to increase physi
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