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Male Reproductive System Notes.docx

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Western University
Kinesiology 3222A/B
Dan Belliveau

1 Male Reproductive System Reproductive Structures Primary Sex organs - Produced gametes from Gonads (Testes) - Form spermatozoa (moving sperm cell) - Secrete sex hormones (androgens) Secondary Sex organs - Transmission of sperm (to vagina) - Ducts - Accessory glands (prostate, seminal vesicle, bulbourethral) - Copulatory organ (penis) Secondary Sex Characteristics - Sexual attractant - Body physical (muscle mass) - Body hair - Pitch of voice (men have more prominent laryngeal prominence) Functions of Male Reproductive System - Testes produce sperm and testosterone - Ducts transport, store and assist in maturation of sperm - Accessory glands secrete most of the semen volume o Provide sugars, buffers, enzymes support semen - Penis is the Copulatory organ, contains the urethra (passage for semen and urine) External Genitalia - Tests inside scrotum o Normally, one lower than other (from development) - Root of penis o Attachment of penis to anterior body wall o Penis= extra abdominal organ - Spermatic cord o Connects inside nerves, vessels to outside External Genitalia- Scrotum - Fibromuscular sac (can contract) - Pigmented skin and superficial fascia - Responds to temperature change o Normal sperm requires temps 2-3 degrees below body temp o Cold: testes/scrotum pulled closer to body (cremaster and dartos contract) o Warm: scrotal skin flaccid and loose (away from body) Musculature of the Scrotum Cremaster Muscle - Skeletal muscles bands that extend from internal oblique - Elevates testes - Inside scrotum skin, contracts to pull closer to body (middle layer) - Descends through spermatic cord to surround testis 1 2 Dartos Muscle - Wrinkle the skin, creates rougher surface (reduces heat loss) - Traps warm air to keep testes comfortable - Smooth muscle - Within superficial fascia Anatomy of the Scrotum - Separated by middle septum o Extends from root of penis to exterior and inferior surface of scrotal sac o Separates into 2 sacs, R/L testicle inside (stops inflammation from spreading) - Ventral surface o Scrotal raphe  Medial ridge that separates lateral portions o Extends anteriorly as penile raphe on shaft o Extends posterioly as perineal raphe between anus and scrotum Blood Supply to Scrotum (different from testes) Internal Iliac Artery Femoral Artery Internal Pudendal Artery External Pudendal Artery Posterior Scrotal Artery Anterior Scrotal Artery Testes - Approx 4cm x 2.5cm - Within scrotum - Surrounded by two tunic layers - Develop near kidneys (intra abdomen), descend towards scrotum through inguinal canals through and gets covered by perionteal wall - Tunica Vaginalis o Extension of peritoneum (lining of abdominal cavity) o Double layered Visceral and Peritoneal tunica vaginalis - Tunica Albuginea 2 3 o ‘white coat’ o Fibrous capsule (provides more structural support) o Inside tunica vaginalis (Innermost) o Invade testes forming septa  Septa divides testes into 250-300 lobules  Each lobule contains 1-4 seminiferous tubules (sperm production) - Seminiferous Tubules o Within each lobe o Hollow lumen (center) o Sperm forms on very edge, collected at lumen o From lumen, sperm migrates to form tubules rectus o Conveys sperm into rete testes o Sperms leaves testes via efferent ductules o Enter epididymis Spermatic Cord - Maintains connection between testes and abdominal cavity - Supporting structure thatascends from scrotum o Ductus deferens (continuation from epididymis) o Testicular artery (directlyoff abdominal aorta) o Both somatic and autonomic nerves o Pampiniform Plexus (venous return fro testes)  Thermoregulation  Absorbs heat from testicular artery so sperm is comfortable o Lymphatic vessels o Cremaster muscle Coverings - Derived from anterolateral abdominal wall - Internal spermatic fascia o Inner most, arises from transversalis muscle - Cremasteric fascia o Comprised of external spermatic fascia - External spermatic fascia o External oblique 3 4 - Surrounded by: Transversalis, Internal, External (pierce through middle) Perineum - Muscular region - External genitalia and anal opening - Between symphysis pubs, coccyx and ischial tuberosities - Urogential triangle - Anal triangle Perineum: Deep Perineum: Intermediate Perineum: Superficial - Urethra - External Urethral - Urethra - Rectum Sphincter - Ischiocavernosus - Levator Ani - Deep transverse - Bulbospongiosus - Pubococcygeus perineal muscle - Superficial -  Iliococcygeus - Perineal transverse - Coccygeus membrane perineal muscle - External anal sphincter Perineum: Muscle Function Levator Ani - Support pelvic viscera - Aids defecation Bulbospongiosus - Constrict urethral canal - Compresses bulb of penis - Assists erection Ischiocavernosus - Maintains erection by compressing outflow veins 4 5 Penis - Coculatory Organ - Encloses spongy urethra o Prostate, membraneous, spomgy - Loose fitting skin - 3 columns of erectile tissue - 3 structural regions o Root: attachment to anterior body o Body o Glans (extended portion- ‘head’) distal end of corpus spongiosum o Glans+body= shaft of penis - Corona o Posterior ridge of glans that separates it from body o Loose CT that covers glans if not removed o Neck posterior to corona - Sensory Ligament o Deep fascia originating from pubic symphysis o Forms a sling that attaches to the root o Hold penis up during erection (support) - Fundiform Ligament o Elastic fibers (not for support) o Superficial fascia of linea alba - Erectile Tissue (3) o Corpora cavernosa (2) o Corpus spongiosum  Keeps spongy urethra during erection  Ventral o Collagen fibers  Run length of shaft  No muscle  Important to maintain rigidity of erect penis o Enclosed by tunica Albuginea Root of Penis - Attached part - Consists of: o Bulb (erectile) o Crura (proximal separation of corpora cavernosa) o Ischiocavernosus o Bulbospongious - Located in the superficial perineal region - Crus o Posterior ends of corpus cavernosa o All erectile tissue - Coprus Spongiosum o Encases entire membranous urethra o Posterior portion (bulb) attached to anterior body wall o Anterior/most distal end expands into glans penis 5 6 Enhancement Phalloplasty - Make it bigger - Some health practitioners created natural supplements to do so - Lengthening (or ‘gurthy;’’-ing) o Approx 1/3 of penis insideof body o Procedure releases attachment of suspensory and fundiform ligament o Purpose is to gather 1/3 bu cutting suspensory an fundiform ligaments - Widening o Adjacent to corpus cavernosa o Pericavernosal graft o Auto graft (take own dermal fat and insert it into penis to increase width) OR
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