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Kinesiology 3347A/B BOOK NOTES.doc

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Kinesiology
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Kinesiology 3347A/B
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BOOK: pg 47 *MON FEB 6* Weight-for-stature: • Weight for height – childs body weight relative to stature • Undernourished – low weight for height (lack of fat/muscle) • Obese – high weight for height (too much fat) • Adolescent growth spurt – stature first then weight, temporarily not accurate measure 2 2 • Weight/stature = BMI expressed as kg/m Sitting height/stature ratio: • Used in growth studies • Sitting height/stature x 100 • Estimates trunk length to leg length (what percent height is trunk/legs) • If you are 54% height ratio – 54% is sitting height (torso) Shoulder-hip relations: • Ratio of bicristal (hips) to biacromial (shoulder) breadths • Bicristal/biacromial x 100 • Become especially apparent during adolescence (wide shoulders – athlete) Other ratios • Skinfold thinkness measured on trunk and extremities (relative subcutaneous adipose distribution) • Waist to hip circumference (adipose distribution) – even tho muscle/skeletal also contribute to hip – good for adult, not valid in adolescent/children • Waist circumference itself is indicator of adipose in abdominal BOOK: Growth in stature and body weight (pg 49) *WED FEB 8* • Birth to early adulthood stature and weight follow four phase growth pattern: o Rapid gain in infancy and early childhood o Steady gain during middle childhood o Rapid gain during adolescent spurt o Slow increase until growth stops – attain adult stature • Sex differences o Prior to adolescent spurt, pretty consistent o Boys average taller an heavier, girls temporarily taller/heavier from earlier growth spurt o Distance curve – indicates size attained by child at given age, or distance traversed on path to adult stature – curves are indicators of growth status, absorb individual growth pattern of each child (curve) o Distance curve – indicates size attained by child at given age, or distance traversed on path to adult stature – curves are indicators of growth status, absorb individual growth pattern of each child (curve) BOOK: reference data/growth chart (pg 50) *MON FEB 13* • Distance or size attained assess the growth status of single child or sample of children • Compared to large sample of healthy children same age (reference data) • Not a standard (which are prescriptive of way things SHOULD be) • Reference data presented in form of several curves representing percentiles (specific point in a distribution) o Boy stature in 5 % then 95% of boys at that age are taller than him o First, need cross sectional data from large samples of children all age, larger samples allow for extreme percentiles  Sample 300 for 5 and 95 th  Sample 500 for 3 and 97 th  Minorities proportionately represented o After birth, individual growth becomes more expressed, absolute range between 5 and 95 becomes larger with age  Wider range of variation for weight than height  Wider range of variation above median than below after 4 years of age o Reference data indicates the stature of children at different ages as they currently are rather than what they should be o Did not use data from NHANES 111 – weight too high, cutoff of being classified as over weight would rise • Growth charts o 50 percentile height, 75 weight = heavy for size o After 3 years children tend to maintain position on growth chart as growth becomes canalized (weight/height remain at specific percentile) o Position changes during adolescence (individual timing and tempo)  Enter puberty early, going to move up percentiles for your age o Growth charts during adolescence do not incorporate individual differences (would be called “tempo conditional” growth charts) BOOK: *MON FEB 13* Growth progress or rate • Growth curve for rate or velocity of growth (cm/yr, kg/yr) – velocity curve • Growth is stature constantly at a decelerating rate (child getting taller but at slower rate) o Reaches it’s lowest point just before the initiation of the AGS • Weight growth occurs at slight constant accelerating rate, after a deceleration in infancy and the second year • AGS growth is weight and stature increase/accelerate • Girls spurt starts 2 years earlier ends around 16, men go for 2-3 more years o Sex difference in young adult stature is 13 cm o Actual adolescent growth different around 2cm… difference comes from males preadolescent growth… 2 years extra of 5cm/yr o A longer period of preadolescent growth and a slightly greater spurt in boys account for the sex difference in adult stature • Max rate of growth in stature during AGS is called Peak Height Velocity o (Indicator of intensity and timing of the spurt, age at the PHV is maturity indicator) Midgrowth Spurt • Children may experience small spurt in growth and stature (increase velocity) several years before onset of AGS (6.5 to 8.5 years of age) o Occurs more frequently in boys than girls (not all children experience this) Episodic Growth • Growth in recumbent length is episodic rather than continuous o Short term variation in growth labeled as pulsatile, minigrowth spurt, salutatory • First 2 years, growth in length proceeds in salutatory manner (stepwise increase or jumps – saltations) separated by periods of no growth (stasis) o Growth did not occur in periodic manner (intervals separated by days of 3-100 days of no growth) • Growth in length/height no a steady, continuous process… instead occurs in intermittent episodes…occur in the different long bones that determine length or stature and at different times Percentiles for growth rate • Children typically gain more in stature during spring and summer • Growth rates are also not linear during childhood and adolescence • Female peak velocity 9,11,13– Male peak velocity 11,13,15 o Early, on time, late o Size attained and velocity of growth include adjustments for individual differences in the timing and tempo of AGS are called tempo conditional Attainment of Adult Stature • Some girls may attain adult stature as early as about 14 years of age, whereas some children, (boys more than girls) can grow into early 20s Growth in boys can go for long time after PHV (8 years) and girls around (6 years) BOOK: *FRI MARCH 2* Growth of BMI (pg 64) • BMI declines from infancy through early childhood (low point age 5,6) • Then increases linearly with age through childhood/adolescence/adulthood • Max rate of increase in BMI corresponds to AGS • Raise in BMI after age 5,6 nadir is called “adiposity rebound” o Children with early adiposity rebound more likely to be fat in late adolescence/adulthood • Elevated BMI not necessarily consistent with excess fatness o Correlation between BMI and fat mass and fat free mass quite similar o Correlation between BMI and percent fat are more variable • BMI better indicator of heaviness and indirectly of body fat o Need interpret BMI of children and adolescent for fat and lean components of body composition Growth Patterns in other body dimensions • Most body dimensions follow same general pattern of growth in size attained and rate of growth as do stature and weight o Exception – subcutaneous adipose tissue, dimensions of head and face • GROWTH o Rapid during infancy/early childhood o Slows to steady during middle childhood o Increase sharply during AGS o Slows and stops when adult is attained • Specific body dimensions differ in magnitude and timing of their respective spurts • Sex differences in size of most dimensions is small in preadolescent children • Early adolescence, girls temporary size advantage in many dimensions due to early AGS (boys eventually surpass girls in dimensions and stature) Sitting Height and Leg Length • Sex differences are negligible during childhood • Leg length of girls is slightly longer than boys for a short period in adolescence, but sitting height is greater for a longer p
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