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Unit 1.rtf

22 Pages

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Kinesiology 3347A/B

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1 KIN 3347B: Growth and Development Introduction Why study growth and development? o Understanding of factors playing positive roles in growth and development o Increase in life span o Improve quality of life o 73 years by 2025 o Human growth patterns are complex o Variable among individuals and sexes o Chronological age an insufficient measure o Better ways of evaluating growth and its implications Unit 1: Basics of Growth and Motor Development a. Introduction and definition of terms b. Patterns of post-natal systemic growth c. Classification and characteristics Terms: Natal - pertaining to birth Pre-natal - prior to birth Neo-natal - immediately following birth Post-natal - after birth Metabolism - complete set of chemical reactions that occur in living cells Catabolism - destructive metabolism; the breakdown of materials Anabolism - constructive metabolism; the building of materials Genotype: o Total set an individual's genetic characteristics contained within his/her genome o Unique to each person o Operational: a set of instructions our body will follow Phenotype: o Physical expression of the genotype o Visible characteristics o Biochemical and tissue variants o Modified by environmental factors interacting with genotype (ecophenotypic variation) 3 central processes in infancy, childhood and adolescence: o Growth o Maturation o Development Growth: o A measurable change in the size of the body as a whole, or the size of specific body parts o Usually an increase in size o Dominant biological activity for first 20 years o Cellular level o Body system, organ and tissue (cell type) specific o Whole body growth does not necessarily parallel body part growth o 3 cellular processes: 1. Hyperplasia Increase in cell number 1 cell about 60 trillion Mitosis/meiosis Neoplasia** - abnormal proliferation of cells, usually faster, tumor 3 2. Hypertrophy Increase in cell size Increase in intracellular functional units (organelles, substrates, proteins, cofactors/coenzymes) ** Muscular and nervous tissue primary growth form Dystrophy = weakening, loss of function, etc. 3. Accretion Addition of intercellular materials I.e. collagen matrices in adipose tissue, connective tissue, or bone Hypertrophy vs. Hyperplasia Difficult to visually observe Old method: o Weight:DNA ratio o Does not take into account hydration, which contributes to weight New methods: o Flow cytometry o Examine and measure microscopic particles o DNA content o Protein content o If both DNA and protein content increase, then it is hyperplasia Neonatal and postnatal growth - largely hyperplastic Childhood and onward - hypertrophic Stage 1: o Genetic material and total protein increase at similar rates o Indicates cell size remains constant o Hyperplastic growth o NOT prenatal tissue growth Stage 2: o DNA replication/cell proliferation slows o Protein synthesis continues at same rate as Stage 1 o Hyperplasia and hypertrophy Stage 3: o The rate of DNA production stabilizes o Protein production rate continues o Hypertrophic Stage 4: o Maturity o Rate of protein production parallels rate of DNA production o Neither occurring by own accord at this stage - can stimulate them to undergo hypertrophy Physical changes seen within growth: o Size o Body composition o Number of: Cells Teeth/bones Hair* (number of hair follicles does not change) o Shape/bodily proportions o Positioning (organs, posture, bladder, ribs) o Colour (hair, skin, iris) o Composition/texture o Function (reproductive, sphincters) Maturation:
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