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Kinesiology 3347A/B

1 Lecture 12: Monday Feb. 6th Unit 4: Somatic Growth Ch.3&4 & pg. 224-227 Measurements - somatic: soma = body - anthropometry - quantifying body dimensions - use of specific landmarks - methods of measurement - instrumentation Importance of height and weight: - most common measures - cultural values and social premiums - status (positively associated with height) - population health (infant birth weight for estimates of population health) - infant development - genetic potential - nutrition and disease Stature: - increases ~3.5x from birth to maturity - unidimensional - Gaussian distribution - create statistical categories (i.e. tall, short) - population variances - more consistent than weight (doesn't fluctuate as much, better measure) - chronic growth and maturatin issues - genotypic contribution more influential Body Size: Stature - linear measurement - composite measure - skeletal growth - birth to 2 years: recumbent length lying supine - Afterwards: sole of foot to vertex (of skull) while erect Variance in stature: - within 20% of median - Normal - 20% below - short - 20% above - tall - dwarfism and giants - 40% or more deviation from median - generally genetic (inherited traits, not growth problems for about half) - cannot be this at a young age, must be at mature/adult state - late maturers - males vary to a greater extent than females in all dimensions Body Size: Weight - 20x from birth to maturity - vs. mass - linear measure (1 axis, downward) - 3-dimensional (different tissue types) - composite measure 3 - fat, skeletal... Height - diurnal variation - daily variance - short-term studies - intervertebral discs - up to 2cm (as gravity acts on us, compresses our body) - posture - tone - pelvis and vertebral column - illness (slouch when don't feel well) - children generally have poor posture Weight: - diurnal variation - caloric consumption vs. expenditure - bladder and bowel voiding - physical activity - water balance - menstruation (water retention, dietary habits) Components of stature: - composite - sitting height - seat surface --> vertex Stature - sitting height = subischial length - infants up to 2 years - supine - lower extremity length - hip joint --> floor while erect Skeletal Breadths: - Taken across bony landmarks - indicate the robustness and growth of the skeleton - biacromial breadth - shoulder breadth - acromial processes of the scapulae - bicristal breadth - iliac crests - hip breadth - biepicondylar breadths - humerus - femur - growth of the appendicular skeleton - between epiconyles of our long bones Limb Circumference: - relative muscular development - composite measure - bone --> muscle --> adipose --> skin - arm circumference - arms hang loosely at side - midway between acromial process and olecranon process - calf circumference - maximal circumference - standing position (muscle tone) - weight evenly distributed
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