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Unit 5.doc

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Western University
Kinesiology 3347A/B

1 UNIT 5: Contribution of Major Tissues to Somatic Growth Readings: Ch.8; Ch. 6; Ch.7 (142-154) Adipose Tissue - All functional fat cells and tissues in the body The Adipose organ: o Comprised of adipocytes o Lipid storage o Stored for 4 purposes: Energy High-yield) Passive insulation and active heat regulation Protection to our viscera Very important) Aesthetic Generally distinguishes male from female forms) o Fat storing/ releasing function Otherwise not considered an adipocyte Two major categories of adipose tissue with regards to location: o Subcutaneous: Major percentage of adipose organ Obesity o Essential: internal; deep; visceral; omental (omentum = fat sheath that covers viscera) Around viscera 2 Nerve sheaths motor development* Cover neurons If not developed properly, can have CNS problems and motor deficiencies Cell membranes Important vital organs 2 major types of adipose tissues with regards to structure: o White tissue: Highly abundant White adipocytes Structurally different than other adipocytes in the body Single, large vacuole of lipid or triglyceride Organelles compressed to periphery of cell Cells arranged in lobules, held together by collagenous connective tissue Mature adipocytes Round in shape 25 to 150 micrometers Quite large relative to other cells in the body Innervated and vascularized Metabolically active tissue Glucose, fatty acid, lipoprotein and cholesterol metabolism Controlled mostly by CNS, quickly responsive tissue Very responsive to stimuli Distribution 3 All over the body Some covering the viscera Mostly superficial (subcutaneous) o Brown tissue: Max absolute mass at birth < 1% of adipose tissue mass 15-50 micrometers (um) Relatively small Several small lipid drops Many small vacuoles (not one large central vacuole = white tissue) Nucleus centrally located Organelles not forced to periphery Less responsive than white tissue Hormones that act on brown tissue have to travel to nucleus first Primary function: heat production Cold temperature animals Highly abundant Highly vascularized and innervated by sympathetic NS (fight-or- flight) Survival function Can respond rather quickly to hormones and to energy stores to produce heat internally High concentrations of: Mitochondria (where energy and heat are produced) Cytochromes (structures upon which we produce energy) 4 Associated enzymes Colour High concentration of mitochondria give brown colour Present in critical areas: Kidneys, back of neck, new born interscapular region of the back, heart Fast acting heat source Internal safeguard Protective function of fetus if born early or into a cold environment Involutes after infancy in most areas Degeneration of a lot of brown fat mass in most areas Prenatal Adipose Tissue Development: o Brown adipose tissue < 1% of body weight at birth <1% of body mass and fat mass at birth ~25g in full term infant No sex differences Prenatal White Adipose Tissue Development: o 14 weeks gestation: White tissue arises o 20 weeks gestation: Fetus is 0.5% fat o No sexual dimorphism in location or amount
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