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Kinesiology 3480A/B notes oct 29 and 31.docx

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Kinesiology 3480A/B
Matthew Heath

Topic #5: Memory Systems  talking about memory in 2 different contexts: o memories that are EXPLICIT in nature  cognitive detail; semantic (general factual knowledge) or episodic (memories that are personally relevant to you) info  tend to involve high level cortical structures  in order to access these memories you have to be consciously aware of them, or else they will not exist (have to be consciously interpreted)  formation through linkages between the temporal lobe and the hippocampus; work in conjunction with one another to form explicit memories o IMPLICIT memories  don’t have to have conscious access to them; we can access them without top-down conscious awareness  tend to be motor related, more often than not  e.g., tying shoelace requires minimal top-down conscious awareness  thought to be retained subcortically, particularly in the cerebellum (responsible for storing these memories)  there is a continuum of memories o not necessarily that any given memory is purely implicit or purely explicit  motor learning/how you learn a new task can prove this  thought that when you learn a new motor task, you progress through 3 distinct stages of learning - cognitive stage, associative stage, and autonomous stage  cognitive stage is more explicit; autonomous is more implicit - use for continuum  cognitive: completely conscious of what you are doing; make a lot of mistakes but do not know how to correct them  associative: nexus between cognitive and autonomous; require less top-down cognitive involvement; become highly aware of the fact that you are making mistakes, but not necessarily sure how to correct those mistakes; still under conscious system  autonomous: no top-down conscious involvement in the task, essentially; make very few if any errors; if you make an error you are able to correct that error; able to make these error corrections without being aware that you made an error in the first place; happen very fast because they are mediated without this top-down control o imaging studies that have shown the validity of this 3-stage model; paul fitz model of learning  studies have shown a shift from high-level cortical structures as someone learns a motor task, to more basic structures residing in cerebellum  memory can be divided into various subsystems: STSS, STM (aka working memory), and LTM  implicit and explicit memories mentioned above are long-term memories (LTM) Clive: - Bilateral hippocampi lesions as a result of viral encephalitis - Large temporal and frontal structures lesions on left side (spared on the right side) - Mostly intact on right side - demonstrates the inability to produce new episodic or semantic memories (explicit) - HE was a musician – still able to learn some musical... o Sparing of frontal and temp structures in right brain o Musical things lateralized to right side - Cerebellum intact – can formulate new implicit memories - Most profound amnesia, most intense form - HM (classic amnesic patient): o Intractable epilepsy as child and young adult, profound (multiple seizures a day) o Mid 20s – neurosurgeon wanted to do surgery on him to relieve his epilepsy § Wanted to remove fragments – what we know now as bilateral hippocampus § Successful – not nearly as many seizures § BUT could not formulate new explicit memories as a result of this surgery (could not remember names, faces) § Has a dense form of amnesia o Around same time when epileptic brain was being mapped o Brenda Milner § Canadian § Want
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