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Kinesiology 1080A/B Lecture Notes - Positron Emission Tomography, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Motor Imagery

Course Code
Kinesiology 1080A/B
Matthew Heath

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Kin March 4, 2013
Describing Movement
A. Measures of Brain Activity
Provide measures of when and what brain regions activate during movement
I. Electroencephalography (EEG) & Magnetoencephalography (MEG)
- Kind of similar
- Measure fast electro-chemical processes in the brain
- They detect when axon is fired (neuron activation)
- Provide exceptional temporal resolution (millisecond level)
- See the parts of the brain that is active while an individual performs a task
- Very poor spatial resolution is a limitation of these two techniques; Provides
a crude understanding of what part of the brain is active but not precise
area of the brain
- The brighter the area, the greater the activation
- Timing issue, use EEG or MEG
MRI vs. fMRI
MRI provides structural scan
fMRI Provides an integration of structure and function; it will provide images of what is active
via very high spatial resolution; these are very expensive and it has very poor temporal
It takes pictures between 5 to 10 seconds but you don’t know what happens in between
those time periods
Due to this limitation, it has poor temporal resolution
Measures of Brain Activity (Continued)
II. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and functional Magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
fMRI good spatial resolution; precise region of brain that is active when you are doing a
motor or cognitive task
PET radioisotope molecule gets injected to your blood molecules and then as your brain
requires oxygen, the blood molecules attached with that radioisotope goes to the brain
The PET scan picks that up; looks at metabolism in the brain
PET is used for diagnosis now and not so much in the theoretical field; due to poor spatial
Shows general metabolic processes in an healthy individual (left
The right pic is the brain of alzemier’s disease
There is a significant reduction in metabolic processes in the
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