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Lecture 5

Kinesiology 1080A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Rheumatic Fever, Coronary Artery Disease, Congenital Heart Defect

Course Code
Kinesiology 1080A/B
Bob La Rose

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Lecture 5 October 17
Introduction to Chronic Disease
Noouiale disease NCDs, also ko as hroi diseases, are not passed from person to person. They
are of long duration and generally slow progression. The four main types of noncommunicable diseases are
ardioasular diseases, aers, hroi respirator diseases, ad diaetes. –WHO
- + osteoporosis
- 2002 report: chronic disease contributed 60% of all deaths and 43% of the global burden of disease
o 2020 expectations: 73% of all deaths, 60% of global burden of disease
o Also think about economic impact and how if affects quality of life
In Canada:
- Total health care cost of physical inactivity related to seven primary chronic diseases is $6.8 billion/year
- Projected cost savings of increasing PA rates in Canada by 1% per year $2.1 billion/year can be saved
by increasing exercise
- -Total economic burden of excess weight and physical inactivity in Canada is estimated at
PA and Chronic Disease
[T]here is irrefutable evidence for the effectiveness of regular physical activity and the primary and secondary
preetio of seeral hroi diseases ad preature death. Warburton, Nicol, & Bredin
Primary Prevention
Reduction of risk factors before occurrence of
- earliest step to prevent
Secondary Prevention
Early detection/identification/addressing of risk
factors for potential development of a
disease/condition, often before symptoms
- screening or addressing risk factors for
potential disease
- you are at risk and you address the
development of that disease
- For ex, higher BP
Tertiary Prevention
Addressing of existing, symptomatic disease/condition
to ameliorate effects or to prevent/delay progression
- Make a better quality of health status
- If asked about levels of prevention refer here
There appears to e a liear relatioship etee phsial atiit ad health status, such that a further increase
in physical activity and fitness will lead to additional improvements in health status. Warburton, Nicol, & Bredin
- Linear relationship as ou irease PA ou’ll see eefit to our health ore atters
CVD umbrella term
- Cardiovascular disease is a term that refers to more than one disease of the circulatory system including
the heart and blood vessels:
o Ischemic heart disease
o Cerebrovascular disease
o Peripheral vascular disease
o Heart failure
o Rheumatic heart disease
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o Congenital heart disease
- Need to recognize these are CVD
- Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in adult Canadian men and women AND the
leading cause of death globally
o Behavioral risk factors (i.e. tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, harmful alcohol use)
affect most types of CVD
PA and CVD
- Primary Prevention
- Oseratioal studies proide opellig eidee that regular PA ad high fitess leel are assoiated
with a reduced risk of premature death from any cause and from CVD in particular among asymptomatic
(without symptoms yet) men and oe.
- Dose-response relationship: Higher PA levels = lower risk
- 2x as likely to die without PA and disease comparable to smoking
- Fit idiiduals ith CVD are at a loer risk of preature death tha those ho do’t hae CVD ad are
o Benefits seen with 1 hour walking/week in middle aged women
CVD and PA
- Secondary Prevention
- Regular phsial atiit is learl effetie i the seodar preetio of ardioasular disease ad is
effective in attenuating the risk of premature death among men and women.:
- We used to think rest to rehabilitate, but PA can decrease risk of morality
- Diabetes is a disease characterized by elevated blood glucose and inadequate or ineffective insulin, which
ipairs a perso’s ailit to regular lood glucose normally
o Type 1:
Less common (5-10%) and immune system response where your pancreas cannot
Juvenile On-set
o Type 2
Pancreases can produce insulin but the insulin cannot do its job
Adult on-set
o Gestational Diabetes
PA and Diabetes
- Primary prevention
- Ireasig researh supports the iportae of regular PA for the priar preetio of Tpe 
- More research required to determine ideal methods and intensities
- Increasing energy expenditure of 500kcal/week decreased diabetes risk of 5%
PA and Diabetes
- Secondary prevention
- Eerise iteretios for patiets ith diaetes are eefiial i iproig gluose hoeostasis.
Prospetie studies…sho a strog assoiatio etee eerise ad redued rates of death fro a
cause and fro diaetes i partiular.
- First-ever guidelines for Type  diaetis ho eerise
- Pairing PA with conventional is most effective
- Aerobic and resistance training
o Research showing resistance has potential as treatment but no proof of which is the best
- Leading cause of death among those with diabetes is heart disease
- Guidelines apply to type 2
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