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Lecture 20

Kinesiology 1080A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 20: Parietal Lobe, Motor Skill, Elipse


Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
Kinesiology 1080A/B
Professor
Melanie Heath
Lecture
20

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March 7
Allan Snyder
Used rTMS to elicit some abilities in individuals
Believed he could turn on anyone’s potentials – able to do tasks they couldn’t normally
Test -> did three tests
oDraw from memory about your version of a horse
oSay a sentence that has an extra “the” in it but they don’t notice it be cause they
rehearse it so much
oCount how many dots were on the screen in 1.5 secondshard task – most just
guessed
Results -> Next he applied rTMS – frequency of 1Hz to decrease left hemisphere to then
increase right hemisphere spatial skills
oWhen they drew the horse the drawing had more skill and more schema
oInstantly spots the extra “the” because of the increase in sensory level raw info
which shuts off upper cortical areas casing them to use right hemisphere more
oGot 8/20 right for spotting the dots
oFor each task there was an improved performance that lasted only for an hour
3-stage model of information processing
Specific to cognition and motor behavior
Input -> stimulus identification -> response selection -> response programming -> output
We process info similarly to a computer
Stages of information processing are serial and discrete
oWe have to identify stimulus first before you choose your response, have to do
this before you can pass it on to responsible
3 stages cannot overlap
Stimulus Detection -> can be simple
oSensory info attained from external sources detected and transformed into
neurological
oNeurological signals are mapped into a meaningful event
oCNS then uses it in a meaningful way
oIt is an unconscious process – not aware of it taking place
Pattern Recognition -> why we can attain high levels f performance
oExtracting patterns or features from environmental stimuli for use in latter stages
of info processing
oIs a trained phenomena with experience we develop
oWith practice we get better at extracting patterns in environment
oTraining pattern recognition can optimize performance in temporarily
oResponse Selection Test - important test
3 groups of participants that had to identify features on a chess board
3 groups never played chess before, played recreationally, or chess
master
When playing a real game, chess masters has the most accurate
performance and the other 2 group took longer, but in a random game

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where positioning would not occur the masters had worse performance
than the other to groups
Findings -> overall not about memory its about pattern recognition, worse
be used for recall task
Better at extracting features that are specific to domain of
expertise
oTest -> can examine how good physicians are at a pattern recognition with an
injury (e.g. recognizing a break)
Had 5 groups (had to decide if they were broken or not)
Medical students
Residents – after med school (finished med school)
Medical fellows (does residency then more training)
Physicians (in ER)
Radiologists
*Experiences increase from top to bottom*
Results -> medical students, residents, fellows were not good at seeing if
it was broken or not
Physicians were pretty good
Radiologists every time they saw a break they got it right within
one second they can do this because the have extensive
amount of practice in this domain, so they have really good
pattern recognition
March 10th, 2014
Magnetic Misreaching
JJ (magnetic man) had a lesion in his left parietal lobe (sensory to motor interface). He
doesn’t display any deficits in terms of motor and cognitive abilities but has a strange
phenomenon when utilizing bimanual actions (reaching with two hands).
In the task, two red knobs are placed in front of him. In the uni-manual condition, if he
reaches for the object in front of his right or left hand, he has no problem.
In the bimanual action, when looking at the knob on the right side, he has no difficulty
with his bimanual action.
If he is to look at the object on the left, both of his hands will move towards the left
object.
Anything he looks to in his left space, his actions are always directed in that space. He’s
unable to separate the performance of his right hand from his left.
Idea about how to rehabilitate this condition for JJ. The left parietal lobe, in some way,
allows for uncoupled bimanual behaviour (independent control of the limbs).
Cognitive theory of expertise:
Takes about 10 years or 10000 hours of deliberate practice to become an expert

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Trend with the dates of birth and the amount of high level athletes
Looked at stratification of birthdays in different leagues associated with sports
Date of birth was stratified into 4 quartiles
Q1 (Jan Feb march) Q2 (Apr May June) Q3 (July Aug Sept) Q4 (Oct Nov Dec)
Elite athletes, majority are born in the 1st or second quartile
The athletes not playing in the elite league had birthdates evenly distributed amongst the
four quartiles
Individuals born in the 1st quartile get noticed earlier because of their “prolonged”
development and therefore will get better opportunities for playing time and coaching.
3– Stage Model of Information Processing
A. Stimulus Identification
B. Response Selection Stage
Once stimulus is identified the appropriate action must be selected
C. Response Programming
Stimulus Response Alternatives
Increasing the number of alternatives relevant to a response increases the time required
to process and select an appropriate response.
March 12th
Hick’s Law (Hyman’s Law)
Task:
Choice reaction time task
Results:
RT increased by 150ms every time the S-R alternatives doubled
Thus, relationship between choice RT and the logarithm of the S-R alternatives is linear
Allows us to predict reaction times based on the SR alternatives
Equation:
Y = a + b(x)
This equation can be adapted to compute an RT value in a choice RT task
Choice RT = a + b[Log2(N)]
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