Kinesiology 1088A/B Lecture Notes - Habituation, Virtual Reality, Hawthorne Effect

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Published on 27 Nov 2012
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The Practice Session as a Motivator
1) Increased motivation can be achieved through the introduction of variety or novelty during
practice
o There is a need to habituate skills and techniques for optimum performance behaviour
o At some point, routine and repetition become boring
o So, we need to teach or repeat the same skills but with a variation in drills
2) Motivation can be enhanced by changing practice routines
o Order or sequence of practice segments can be altered
o Change player positions or responsibilities for a portion of practice (also generates
appreciation for roles of others)
o Alter rules or adapt games to meet specific needs (focus on particular skills or strategies
for all or part of a practice)
o BUT don’t change just for the sake of change (maintain some specific goal direction
and explain the reason for the change(s) to the participants)
3) Motivation can be enhanced simply by providing special attention to the participant(s)
o Hawthorne Effect (1939)
Purpose: to examine the influence of different aspects of the work environment
on productivity and moral
Conditions in the Hawthorne plants were systemically altered (changed lighting
and ventilation)
Changes produced an increase in productivity (regardless of what was changed,
productivity increased)
Conclusion: it wasn’t the changes made as much as the special attention that
was given to the employees that influenced productivity
- Other research support for the effects of change and variety in practice sessions
1) Stimulus seeking
a. Humans exhibit needs beyond the satisfaction of basic physiological drives
i. NEEDS: ACTIVITY, CURIOSITY, MANIPULATION, EXPLORATION, PHYSICAL
CONTACT
- These drives all provide an impetus for us to investigate and manipulate our environment
- We all tend to be attracted by unusual or striking characteristics which stimulate our sense
organs
Optimal Levels of Arousal Theories
- Physiological arousal or tension (psych)
- Sensory stimulation (virtual reality)
- Psychological complexes (puzzles, anagrams, find a figure books)
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