Kinesiology 1088A/B Lecture Notes - Social Learning Theory, Autogenic Training, Mantra

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Intro to Sport Psychology Notes 2 (for FINAL)
October 19th 2011
Psychological Skills Training (PST)
The systematic and consistent practice of mental or psychological skills
Psychological skills can be learned but must be practiced and integrated into your routine
Psychological factors account for most day to day fluctuations in performance
Myths:
Psychological skills are innate (they cannot be learned)
Only for “problem athletes”
Only effective for the “elite” athlete
Provide for “quick fix” solutions
Not useful “hocus pocus”
Components of PST Program:
1. Education Phase: Learn the nature and basis of the skill and understand how it influences
performance
2. Acquisition Phase: Structure training program to develop skills and techniques
3. Practice Phase: Integrate skill development into practice and competitive settings
**Helps make the sporting experience fun and helps/meets everyone’s needs**
PST Program:
Who?:
- Sport psychology consultant
- Coach
When?:
- Pre-season or off season
- 3-6 month duration
- Ongoing process integrated into practices
Needs Assessment:
- Evaluate strength and weaknesses
- Oral interview and psychology inventory
- Performing Profiling
What?:
- Which skills to include?
- Scheduling
- Evaluation and follow-up
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Problems:
- Lack of conviction
- Lack of time
- Lack of knowledge
- Lack of follow-up
1. Psychological Skills (INITIAL FOCUS)
a) Psychological Skills:
- Personal qualities to be attained or developed (ex: target behaviours)
b) Performance Skills:
- Optimal Arousal (mental and physical)
- Attention Control
c) Foundation Skills:
- Self-Confidence
- Motivation
- Self-Awareness
- Self-Esteem
d) Facilitative Skills:
- Interpersonal-Awareness
- Lifestyle Management
Pride = Skill & Process = Method
2. Psychological Methods (SECONDARY FOCUS)
- Procedures or techniques used to develop psychological SKILLS (vehicle used to attain skills)
- Goal Setting, relaxation, imagery, thought processes (self-talk), attribution.
Presence of Others as a Motivator:
- Other s = Spectators or audience (observers)
= Co-actors (others doing same task-opponent)
a) SOCIAL FACILITATION THEORY (Zajonc, 1965)
- The mere presence of others serves to increase arousal levels (more anxious) and causes a
response to occur faster or more intensely
1. Increased arousal will increase the likelihood that an individual’s dominant response will
occur
2. In simple, well learned skills, correct responses and improved performance occurs in the
presence of others
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3. In complexor newly learned skills the dominant responses may be incorrect (old or bad
habits) and performance will be impaired in the presence of others.
4. Evaluation Apprehension: It’s not just the presence of others that causes arousal.
Rather, it is the expectation that those present will be judge or evaluate the quality of
the performance that increases arousal ad influences performance effectiveness.
October 24th 2011
- We learn to associate others with praise/blame or reward/punish type of evaluations
- “I always do better when you’re not looking”
- An audience can thus have either an arousing or a calming effect and produces resultant
variations in performance or behaviour (DRIVE THEORY)
Cognitive Approach (Borden, 1980)
- Incorporates both of the above theories but takes it one step further
- The performer is not simply a reactor who responds to an audience
- The performer is a PROACTIVE participant who…
o Interprets the social situation (through perceptions and exceptions)
o Predicts the possible audience reaction
o And alters behaviour to appeal to this reaction
- Previous experience, age, gender and personality will all influence the individuals subject
interpretation of the social situation
- The size of the audience is not as important as how the individual interprets the size within the
situation (numbers according to settinghostile vs. supportive)
- Expertise interpret whether the crowd can accurately assess the quality of the performance
- Supportiveness quality of social support from those present
HOME FIELD:
Advantages (Varca, 1980):
o Functional aggression (home) = more rebounds, blocks, steals
o Dysfunctional aggression (away) = more fouls, turnovers
Disadvantages (Beaumeister, 1984):
- Increased self-consciousness distracts from the automatic execution of skills (playoffs)
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