Kinesiology 1088A/B Lecture Notes - Virtual Reality, Body Language, Team Unity

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Kinesiology- Lecture 1 (Friday)
Sept 9/11
-6 labs (count 5) 3% each = 15% of grade
Objectives of Exercise Psychology
a.) Psychological factors effect physical performance
b.) How participation influences psychological development (well being)
Comprehensive objective
Understanding of behavior and performance through
1.) Description 2.) Explanation 3.)Prediction*
Behavior- a unique way of responding to all stimuli
Performance- a goal directed behavior for the purpose of short-term execution of a discrete task
Orientation to Sports Psychology
BEHAVIORAL- behavior of athletes determined by environment -ex. Weather
PSHCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL- study impact of physiological responses to activity on behavior
COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR- behavior is determined by ones interpretation of both environment
and cognitions (how self talks influence the outcome) *this one is not simple unlike the
previous two
Professional Approaches
Clinical counseling (ex. eating disorders)
Crisis intervention
Psychological assessment
Performance and enhancement
Consultation and program development
Prevention and treatment of injuries
Sport Psychologist vs. Sport Consultant
Kolb’s learning cycle
a.) Concrete experiment actual feeling
b.) Reflective observation- watching what happened
c.) Abstract conceptualization
d.) Active experimentation try again
Methods and way of knowing (how to generate knowledge)
1.) Scientific method/experiment (scientific approach to gaining knowledge)
2.) Systematic observation (how people behave/preform *you know who is preforming well
simply by observing them)
3.) Single Case Study (observe one person to gain knowledge)
4.) Shared public Experience (talk to someone who has gone through the same thing)
5.) Introspection (your own thoughts or feelings)
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6.) Intuition** (“passive knowledgeusually use this)
Ways of Knowing in Sport Psychology
-Any systematic study of sport psychology has to include these stages
1.) Observation and description (what is it- identify or define the essential characteristics)
2.) Analysis/ Explanation (why) attempt to provide reason for stage 1
3.) Prediction (what will it be- use knowledge obtained to predict future occurrences
4.) Control (how can we) what can we control to change the behavior or performance
Kinesiology- Lecture 2 (Monday)
Sept 12/11
Scientific Method
Objectivity- lack of bias (founded on this concept)
Manipulative nature
Uses systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical filtering of knowledge through
experience
Six steps
1.) Formulation of hypothesis
2.) Design investigation
3.) Accumulate data
4.) Classification of data
5.) Development of generalization
6.) Verify the results
(Provides scientists with reliable and valid data that can be used to develop generalizations theories
and laws of human error)- however this is a slow and conservative process that often lacks external
validity
Professional Practice Knowledge
-Holistic and experimental (guided trial and error learning reflecting the complex interplay of many
factors)
-It is often innovative and immediately applicable but less reliable and susceptive to bias
- Biggest difference is the central and active role of the researcher in the process of knowing (within
the research rather than a neutral outside observer
Pre-eminence of tactic knowledge- a process of interference and intuition that integrates clues into
meaning
Subsidiary awareness of certain clues- we know more then we can tell it just seems logical
- Use unique experience and knowledge to develop strategies
Ex. (ways to draw out passive knowledge)
- Case studies
- Clinical reports
- In depth interviews
- Introspective results
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- Participant observations
- Shared experiences
- You must actively integrate scientific knowledge with professional experience and temper these
with your own insights and intuition
Motivation
-Latin “to move”
-Def’n- the direction (approach/avoid), and intensity (high/low) of ones effort
-Situation orientated, participant orientated, the interaction of both
- A theoretical construct (not a directly observable phenomenon)
-Accounts for selection of activities, intensity you put into them, persistence you show
Kinesiology- Lecture 3 (Wednesday)
Sept 14/11
Personal factors
Needs, interests, goals, personality
Situational factors
Coach style, facility, team win/loss record
(Combined it is a participant-by-situation interaction= participant motivation
-Some motivational factors can be easily changed (goal setting, reinforcement, self confidence) while
others are difficult to influence (presence of others, anxiety, focus of attention)
Guidelines
Both the situation and personal traits motivate participants
Important for leader (coach) and player to know what motivates them to preform well
(different for everyone ex. “there’s a lot on the line” or “its only a game” concept)
Competing motives
Shared motive/ Unique motives
Motives change over time
Structure or change the environment to enhance motivation
Important role of the leader (coach) in influencing motivation
Undesirable motives can be changed by behavior modification techniques “manipulate how you
preform”
Token Rewards as Motivators
Reward- things used to modify or manipulate or manipulate behavior
Reinforcement- personal interaction- verbal/non-verbal
Token rewards- also known as behavior modification
**Contingency management**
Contingency- relationship between a behavior and its consequence (not listening to coach
contingency might be to sit on the bench)
Contingency Management- regulate behavior of use of tokens to influence or alter outcomes
Ex. token rewards: scholarships, trophy, food, money, freedom, love
- Undesirable behaviors can be eliminated through use of tokens
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