Kinesiology 1088A/B Lecture Notes - Free Throw, Ender Wiggin, Hyperintensity
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Present others (influence on how you perform)
Beginning learning harmful
Intermediate learning stage Slightly harmful or beneficial
Highest Learning stage Beneficial or no apparent effect
C) Cognitive Approach
Incorporates both of the above theories but takes it a step further
- The performer is not simply a reactor who responds to an audience or to coactors
- The performer is therefore a PROACTIVE participant who:
oInterprets the social situation (through perceptions and expectations) example
getting booed on home floor bad reactions but away it is expected.
oPredicts the possible audience reactions
oAnd alters behaviour to appeal to this reaction
- Previous experience, age, gender and personality will all influence the individual’s
subjective interpretations of the social situation.
- The size of the audience is not as important as how the individual interprets the size
within the situation (numbers according to setting- hostile vs. supportive)
- Expertise – interpret whether the crowd can accurately assess the quality of the
- Supportiveness – quality of social support from those present.
a) Advantage (Varca, 1980)
oFunctional aggression (home) = more rebounds, blocks, steals (more aggression
when being supported)
oDysfunctional aggression (away) = more fouls, turnovers
b) Disadvantage (Beaumeister, 1984)
oIncreased self-consciousness distracts from the automatic execution of skills
(playoffs) under stressful situations at home more pressure and more expectation
which can be distracting vs. away with lower expectations.
There is very little that can be done to eliminate the stressful effects of the presence of others at
sporting or exercise events. BUT:
1. Eliminate evaluative apprehensions and control arousal especially when learning new
2. Knowledge is power – educate and inform participants about:
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