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Lecture 4

Kinesiology 1088A/B Lecture 4: Lect4- social reinforcment- Sept16.docx


Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
Kinesiology 1088A/B
Professor
Bob Larose
Lecture
4

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September 16, 2013
SOCIAL REINFORCEMENT
- non tangible, positive or negative, comments made by others
a) Verbal Praise or Criticism/ Sarcasm
b) Non Verbal Expressions/ Gestures
*non verbal trumps verbal
**Number of factors that influence degree of social reinforces impact on performance
(don’t always enhance)
Works Best When:
1) Younger recipient
2) Infrequently used
3) Convey information about competence
4) Opposite sex
5) Unknown or disliked
6) Task is basic/ simple
Implications
1) Children with positive reinforcement = better self esteem and positive perception
of coach and team
2) Judicious use of positive social reinforcement important in development of
positive relations
3) Decide whether to use i) social reinforcement to improve performance (not often)
or ii) social reinforcement to improve environment (often)
4) Any positive social reinforcement should
a) be meaningful or important
b) contingent on some performance criteria not just the outcome
c) immediately and consistently used among all participants
d) also given for good effort
e) allow mistake in overall performance
f) reward good social and emotional responses
g) maintain skills by continuing to reinforce correct performance – not just incorrect
Distribution of reinforcement and punishment for effective coaching and teaching (Kauss,
1980)
50%- Positive Reinforcement: good behaviour
45%- Ignore: bad behaviour/ suggest correct behaviour
5%- Punishment: intolerable behaviour
Procedures for developing and maintaining Performance and Behaviour
1) SHAPING
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