Kinesiology 1088A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 23: Nonverbal Communication, Bandura, Biofeedback

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Kin 13:31
Nov. 11, 2013
C) Stress/Excitement – provide variation and novelty in practice
give participants many challenging opportunities and expectations
D) Status/Success – don’t over emphasize winning but don’t ignore its importance
promote all roles, effort and performance
E) Fitness – provide all participants with the opportunity to be active and involved
Conditioning is a valuable part of every activity but don’t use punishment
Competition as a Motivator (Chapter 5)
Should read textbooks, has good examples in it
Competition is a good strong motivational force imbedded in all sporting situations and
in many recreational settings as well. However, the coach or leader has very little control
over it
Descriptors: a situational process that is either zero sum or nonzero sum (reward
structures)
And is either direct (in wrestling when someone gets pinned) or indirect (in golf – you
play against someone else (direct) but also indirectly play against par)
Zero sum – one winner, one loser (eg. a badminton game)
Nonzero sum – both players benefit (eg. squash game with a 5 point handicap)
Cooperation - working together with others to accomplish a task or reach a common
goal
Competition and cooperation can be at work at the same time on any team or group
(i.e. cooperate with teammates vs opponent but compete with them for starting role or
playing time
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Competition – fairness vs De-competition – rival (pg 105 in text)
The Competitive Process (Martens, 1975)
Each individual experiences the competitive process differently and it may vary from one
situation to another within the same person
The competitive process is primarily focused on social evaluation (comparison with
others or standards)
Linked stages often influenced by external feedback and rewards DIAGRAM IN TEXT
1. Objective competitive situation- Comparison criteria is known by others who can
evaluate performance
2. Subjective competitive situation- How the person perceives the objective situation
3 orientations:
oCompetitiveness
oWin orientated
oGoal orientated
SOQ – sport orientation questionnaire (Gill, 1988)
3. Response
Approach/ avoid
Behavioural (type of opponent - professional, amateur)
Physiological (arousal eg. playing someone bad or playing a hard team)
Psychological (internal and external factors)
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