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Lecture 10

Kinesiology 1088A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: List Of Disney Comics By Carl Barks, Semipermeable Membrane, Situational Leadership Theory

Course Code
Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

of 11
Kin – Classes 10 to 12 12:31
Determinants of Exercise Adherence: Cont’d…
Personal Factors:
Demographics – income, education, occupation, age, gender
Behaviour – past program, participation, diet
Cognitive/Personality – self-efficacy (self confidence in specific situations), self-
motivation, beliefs, expectations
Social Factors:
Social support can come from:
Important others (physician, colleagues)
Exercise leader
Other exercisers
Task and social cohesion
Social support has a small to moderate positive effect on exercise behaviour
Adherence behaviour is more strongly influenced by social support from important
others than from family members
Situational Factors:
Convenience of exercise facility
Lack of time
Program Factors:
Exercise intensity
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Moderate intensity level best for exercise adherence and maintenance
Group exercise
Exercise leader
Theoretical Approaches to Exercise Adherence:
1. Health Belief Model
2. Theory of Reasoned Action
3. Theory of Planned Behaviour
Health Belief Model:
Likelihood of engaging in preventative health behaviours depends on one’s perception of
the severity of a potential illness vs. the appraisal of costs and benefits of taking
action – “I want to be healthy because my quality of life will be better and I will live
Potential illnesses associated with not exercising are serious (if you don’t start
exercising you’re going to have a heart attack)
He or she is at risk
Pros outweigh the cons
All the above make the individual likely to exercise
Theory of Reasoned Action: (TRA – Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980)
Intentions are best predictors of actual behaviour
Intentions are the product of attitude toward a particular behaviour and subjective
norms (beliefs about others’ expectations and motivation to comply with them)
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“It’s important for me to be fit because I need to be a role model”
Intention (I’m going to exercise) – what you plan to do
Intention  Behaviour (intentions are the best predictors of actual behaviours)
Attitude is precursor to Intention and Behaviour (Attitude  Intention 
Behaviour) – the positive or negative evaluation of performing the behaviour
Subjective Norm is another influencer (Subjective Norm OR Attitude  Intention
 Behaviour) – perceived social pressure to perform or not perform a given
Theory of Planned Behaviour: (TPB – Ajzen and Madden, 1986)
Intentions cannot be the sole predictor of behaviour, especially in situations where
people lack control over the behaviour
In addition to attitudes and subjective norms, perceived behavioural control will also
influence intentions and therefore behaviour
Subjective Norm OR Attitude  Intention  Behaviour
Perceived Behavioural Control  Intention  Behaviour
Perceived ease or difficulty of performing the behaviour
Strategies for Enhancing Adherence:
Encourage social support from significant others (family, exercise buddies)
Make the exercise enjoyable, use variety and music
Tailor the intensity, frequency, and duration to the individual
Exercise in a group or with a buddy
Reinforce success (ex. attendance and participation)
Offer a choice of activities
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