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Lecture 7

Kinesiology 1088A/B Lecture 7: Kin 1088A – Classes 7 to 9

Course Code
Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

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Kin – Classes 7 to 9 12:30
Flow (Cont’d. from last day): CHAPTER 6
Challenge high + skills low = anxiety; challenge low + skills low = apathy; challenge low
+ skills high = boredom; challenge high + skills high = flow
Figure 8.1, pg. 150
How to Achieve Flow:
Motivation to perform (challenge)
Optimal levels of arousal (vary by individual)
Maintain narrow focus on key elements – stay in the present
Pre-competitive and competitive plans and preparation (game plan)
Physical preparation and readiness (physically at top of my game)
Confidence and positive mental attitude (aka PMA)
Trust and shared sense of purpose with teammates (cohesion)
Feeling good about performance – in sync (as you go through process, feel good about
Extrinsic rewards do not necessarily undermine OR enhance intrinsic interest in an
It is the individual’s interpretation of the reward (SALIENCE) that is critical
It is not a question of whether or not to use an extrinsic reward – rather it is HOW such
a reward should be used
It is the controlling and informational aspect of the reward that must be considered
THEREFORE, as a leader we should:
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Provide an optimally challenging environment
Provide rewards for competence
Use small rewards that are not too controlling
Provide opportunity for self-determination (input and resulting responsibility) in
evaluating and administering rewards
Be interpersonally supportive (reinforce rather than reward)
Make people “origins” not “pawns” (not just be manipulated by rewards)
oPg. 153 – Factors that Disrupt and Prevent Flow
Communication (Chapter 10)
Sender  Channel (communication mechanism)  Receiver  Decoding  Response 
Decision  Encoding (then cycle repeats itself)
Purpose (in sport and exercise):
Persuade (running wind sprints isn’t a punishment, we need to do them to be better
than opponent)
Evaluate (should this person be in this position and starting or would the backup be
better? Etc)
Problem Solve
Types of Communication:
Interpersonal – between two or more people
Guidelines for Sending Effective Messages:
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a.i. Be direct
a.ii. Own your message (I, me; not we, they – “this is what I think”)
a.iii. Be complete and specific
a.iv. Avoid double messages/meanings (“What do you think of my haircut?”
“Looks great but you could’ve used the money to buy a nice hat.”)
a.v. State your feelings clearly (I like it, I don’t like it, etc) Separate fact from fiction (what you know from what you’ve heard)
a.vii. Focus on one thing at a time
a.viii. Deliver message immediately (don’t wait until after game if someone does
something wrong)
a.ix. No hidden agendas (I’m going to tell you something but what I really want
you to do is something else)
a.x. Be supportive (does not necessarily mean being positive – tell someone how
they can improve, etc)
a.xi. Consistent with non-verbal messages
a.xii. Reinforce using repetition
a.xiii. Tailor message to experience of receiver
a.xiv. Was message accurately interpreted?
Martens, 1987 – Listening Skills Test (pg. 233)
Intrapersonal – self-talk/thought
Inner dialogue that helps to shape how we act and perform
Non-verbal – 50% of all communication
Ex. when the coach is motioning plays to the quarterback
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