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Lecture 4

Kinesiology 2230A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: High Intensity Training, Vo2 Max, Cytochrome C

Course Code
Kinesiology 2230A/B
Glen Belfry

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Adaptation to Training 2230 Raquel Moses
Lecture 1:
Time Motion Analysis:
- Determines how much time people spend at different intensities required for that particular sport
- How aerobic/anaerobically fit they have to be? How strong they have to be?
o To meet the demands for that particular sport
- Amount of recovery time in the sport dictates the possible intensities that people can perform at
o More time between efforts = greater ability to perform at high level from a power output
perspective (work to rest ratio)
World Records:
- Paer: Anaerobic concentration for a particular time frame
o At 60s, 50% aerobic and 50% anaerobic
o After 60 seconds, the energy system contribution is going to become more aerobic
o Any maximal effort less than 60 seconds will become more anaerobic
- For most sports, there’s a combination of aerobic and anaerobic capacities
- Most of this capacity comes from training and practice
Aerobic Metabolism:
1. Increase capacity volume, duration and intensity
2. Increase fuel storage
3. Sparing of CHO fatigue if delete glycogen stores
Increased Capacity:
- Increased in mitochondrial size and number = get more enzyme activity
- This results in an increased aerobic capacity
- Aerobic capacity increases over time and gradually levels off
- Duration and intensity of exercise are also important influences on these adaptations
Kreb’s Cycle Enzymes:
- Gastrocnemius enzyme activity in untrained (UT), moderately
trained (MT) joggers and highly trained (HT) marathon runners
- Enzyme activity increases with more training
How much is Engough?
- At elite level in aerobic sports, some people spend 20-30
hours/week of aerobic training
- At what point does it become redundant
- Sutdy: increase in volume in overtime and looked for % change in VO2 max and maximal O2
consumption as it relates to the increase in volume
o As VO2 max and maximal O2 consumption increase = increase aerobic capacity
o With a linear increase in volume, VO2 max from months 3-7 didn’t really change much
o More linear increase in SDH, even though there was a plateau in O2 consumption
o Thus metabolic rate of Kreb cycle still continued to increase and improved lactate threshold

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Adaptation to Training 2230 Raquel Moses
Influence of Exercise Bount Duration:
- Aerobic capacity increases over time and gradually levels off
- Duration and intensity of exercise are also important
influences on these adaptations
- looked at mitochondrial content at different intensities
- Trained for 10 weeks (a-e) = increased intensities
- With increased intensities, mitochondrial content increases
- With increased intensities, only able to run 30 mins a day
o Duration to sustain a particular work rate drops
o Regardless of how much time they’re doing,
mitochondrial content still increases
- With aerobic high intensity intervals, continue to see an
increase in mitochondrial content
- Thus with increase intensity, will have to decrease duration
but will still see an increase in mitochondrial content
Effects of Training Intensity Cytochrome C: studied with Type IIb (little aerobic capacity)
- More Cytochrome C = more electrons that can be processed in the ETC
- With increase intensity = increase cytochrome C concentration = more ATP from ETC
- Greatest increase when very high intensity
- Studied with Type IIb (little aerobic capacity) working with fast twitch fibres and train them to
function more aerobically
Effects of Training Duration: 80-90% max HR in 20 weeks
- Looking at inactive individuals
- If they did a 20-week training program, looked for VO2 max increase
- 4 groups: control, 15 mins, 30 mins and 45 mins duration
- 15 mins: increase from 45 to 48.9 increase 8.5% VO2 max
- 30 mins: increase from 41.5 to 48.2 increase 16.1% VO2 max
- 45 mins: increase from 45.4 to 53.1 increase 16.8% VO2 max
o Only 0.7% increase in VO2 max with 15 min increase
o getting stronger and endurance will get better but their VO2 max only goes up marginally
Effects of Intensity:
- have to word hard before see the increase in mitochondrial content, but then will go up quickly
- for ST fibres, they will plateau over time
- intensity is important if trying to change VO2 max
Different Fibre Types with Intensity and Cytochrome C:
- Type I: with increasing intensity after threshold, start to lose adaptation
o These are what give most of the energy
o Anything that is more than a couple of minutes and hard, will be
predominantly ST fibers and don’t want to lose these adaptations
o So we use a combo of high intensity and low intensity longer
duration exercise
- Type IIa: (oxidative)
o Don’t lose anything with increasing intensity
- Type IIb/x
o Continue to become more oxidative with greater intensity

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Adaptation to Training 2230 Raquel Moses
Frequency of Training:
- Control, 1 day, 3 day and 5 days per week training groups
- Significant improvement with 1 day a week: 8%
- 3 days a week: 13%
- 5 days a week: 17%
o even though doing more, there’s some improvement but not increasing as much (only 4%)
- frequency is good for an inactive population see lots of improvement
- if elite who has been training for a while, doesn’t really give them that much of an improvement
o in competition, any small improvement can make a difference compared to competitors
Effects of Training on Lactate Threshold:
- If go faster without dipping into anaerobic contribution, lactate doesn’t change but do more work
o Still below lactate threshold
- train this by training just below threshold for long durations changes lactate threshold and increase
enzyme concentrations
- can buffer more with more bicarbonate
- buffering occurs above lactate threshold need that stimulus to adapt in a positive fashion
With Training: Increase Fuel Supply
- with training, muscle glycogen content may be increased 2x
- with training, lipid content of the muscle is increased as lipid is used
o the result is glycogen sparing
o if use more lipids, conserve glycogen increases endurance
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