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Lecture 5

Kinesiology 2230A/B Lecture 5:

Course Code
Kinesiology 2230A/B
Glen Belfry

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Lecture 5 - January 16th 2019
-Tour de France requires dierent energy systems on dierent days"
TT through mountains, distance days (220k), flat races are a sprinters advantage"
-#1 requirement is being extremely aerobically fit"
-On the flat days the sprinters stay in the middle of the pack and duke it out at
the very end "
-They also deal with altitude (less oxygen)"
Mitochondria (aerobic metabolism) and sarcoplasm (where glycolysis takes place)
are located directly adjacent to the contractile proteins that use the energy"
-Blood-Glucose concentrations are very tightly controlled"
-Pancreas is key to this, in particular the beta cells where insulin is produced"
-Insulin lowers glucose concentration "
-GLUT4 is the specific compound that transports glucose into the cell"
-During exercise, calcium (which is released) activates the GLUT4 carriers to enable
insulin to do what it does"
-Calcium is associated with the contractile sequence, without calcium in the cell
contraction would not occur "
-Insulin stimulates the uptake of glucose into skeletal to be stored as substrate for
energy production"
-It also stimulates uptake of glucose into fat cells"
-People with type 1 diabetes will lose weight very fast due to carbs being excreted in
the urine"
-In type 2, they DO produce insulin but it doesn’t do it’s job of upstaking into "
In an exercise situation, glycogen is broken down by glycogen phosphorylase and
goes to G6P"
2 ATP comes from the metabolization of the 2 glycerol 3 phosphates"
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NAD is in the cytopasm, a reduction occurs (adding hydrogen) making it NADH + H "
When NADH + H builds up in the cytoplasm, thats a lot of potential energy stored, so
you want to transport the hydrogens into the mitochondria"
Heart Muscle and skeletal muscle shuttle system is dierent"
-Key dierence is metabolism as well"
-H is cleaved o, we form malate and the enzyme responsible is cytoplasmic malate
-Now malate can move through the mitochondrial membrane "
-Now H is cleaved o of the malate and bound back to an NAD from a separate pool
in the mitochondria "
This is done by mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase"
Then the ETC happens for energy"
Skeletal muscle"
-Essentially the same but with dierent compounds"
-W e form glycerol phosphate now instead of matate "
-In skeletal muscle, it’s not NAD it’s FAD"
That has implications for energy production (NAD formation) "
We get more energy from hydrogens bound to NAD than FAD"
Feedback Feed Forward"
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