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Lecture 3

Kinesiology 2241A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Glycogen, Kolmogorov Space, Glycolysis

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Kinesiology 2241A/B
Thomas Richard Jenkyn

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Donya Merza
2241 Biomechanics
Thomas Jenkyn
October 20, 2017
Biomechanics Assignment #2
1. Flex the shoulder joint 90 degrees, and then flex the elbow as far as possible. Repeat the
elbow flexion with the shoulder joint flexed 180 degrees. Is there any discomfort? Why
should one expect the second task to be more difficult? What is the name for this
a. There is discomfort in the triceps. This is difficult because the triceps muscle
crosses two joints, the elbow joint and the shoulder joint; this multi-joint muscle
can’t get full range of motion at both joints simultaneously and can’t lengthen
enough. This is passive insufficiency.
2. Identify the functional differences among SO, FOG, and FG muscle fibers.
a. Slow twitch oxidative fibers utilize oxygen to release energy needed to contract
the muscle are slow to contract but also slow to fatigue and can be used for a
longer amount of time for aerobic endurance.
b. Fast twitch oxidative fibers are faster to contract than SO, fatigue resistant (but
fatigue quicker than SO), and use oxygen.
c. Fast twitch glycolytic fibers are the fastest muscle fibers to contract, fastest to
fatigue and they use glycogen (stored glucose) for energy and when glycogen runs
out, it starts to produce lactic acid. They have high anaerobic activity and low
3. Speculate about the relative proportions of fiber types in the muscles of championship
performers: (a) the legs of a marathon runner, (b) the arms of a shot-puter, (c) the arms of
a gymnast, (d) the arms of a baseball pitcher, (e) the legs of a down-hill skier, (f) the legs
of a cross-country skier, and (g) the legs of a mountain climber.
a. Mostly SO
b. Mostly FG
c. All 3 are about the same
d. Mostly FOG & FG
e. Mostly SO with less FOG and FG
f. Mostly SO
g. Mostly SO with less FOG and FG
4. Describe how the Golgi tendon organs facilitate and inhibit muscular contractions. Cite a
sport-specific example.
a. When there is excessive tension in muscular contractions, a Golgi tendon organ is
stretched and cause the antagonist muscle to contract and inhibits the agonist
muscle to contract because they cannot both contract at the same time or else
there is no movement. A sports specific example of this is when you are doing a
bicep curl and the weight it too heavy, your Golgi tendon organs contract and
cause you to release the muscle contraction. Another example is in arm wrestling
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