Kinesiology 3347A/B Lecture Notes - Growth Chart, Percentile Rank, National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey

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BOOK: pg 47 *MON FEB 6*
Weight-for-stature:
Weight for height – childs body weight relative to stature
Undernourished – low weight for height (lack of fat/muscle)
Obese – high weight for height (too much fat)
Adolescent growth spurt stature first then weight, temporarily not accurate
measure
Weight/stature2 = BMI expressed as kg/m2
Sitting height/stature ratio:
Used in growth studies
Sitting height/stature x 100
Estimates trunk length to leg length (what percent height is trunk/legs)
If you are 54% height ratio – 54% is sitting height (torso)
Shoulder-hip relations:
Ratio of bicristal (hips) to biacromial (shoulder) breadths
Bicristal/biacromial x 100
Become especially apparent during adolescence (wide shoulders – athlete)
Other ratios
Skinfold thinkness measured on trunk and extremities (relative subcutaneous
adipose distribution)
Waist to hip circumference (adipose distribution) even tho muscle/skeletal also
contribute to hip – good for adult, not valid in adolescent/children
Waist circumference itself is indicator of adipose in abdominal
BOOK: Growth in stature and body weight (pg 49) *WED FEB 8*
Birth to early adulthood stature and weight follow four phase growth pattern:
oRapid gain in infancy and early childhood
oSteady gain during middle childhood
oRapid gain during adolescent spurt
oSlow increase until growth stops – attain adult stature
Sex differences
oPrior to adolescent spurt, pretty consistent
oBoys average taller an heavier, girls temporarily taller/heavier from
earlier growth spurt
oDistance curve indicates size attained by child at given age, or distance
traversed on path to adult stature – curves are indicators of growth status,
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absorb individual growth pattern of each child (curve)
oDistance curve indicates size attained by child at given age, or distance
traversed on path to adult stature – curves are indicators of growth status,
absorb individual growth pattern of each child (curve)
BOOK: reference data/growth chart (pg 50) *MON FEB 13*
Distance or size attained assess the growth status of single child or sample of
children
Compared to large sample of healthy children same age (reference data)
Not a standard (which are prescriptive of way things SHOULD be)
Reference data presented in form of several curves representing percentiles
(specific point in a distribution)
oBoy stature in 5tth % then 95% of boys at that age are taller than him
oFirst, need cross sectional data from large samples of children all age,
larger samples allow for extreme percentiles
Sample 300 for 5th and 95th
Sample 500 for 3rd and 97th
Minorities proportionately represented
oAfter birth, individual growth becomes more expressed, absolute range
between 5th and 95th becomes larger with age
Wider range of variation for weight than height
Wider range of variation above median than below after 4 years of
age
oReference data indicates the stature of children at different ages as they
currently are rather than what they should be
oDid not use data from NHANES 111 weight too high, cutoff of being
classified as over weight would rise
Growth charts
o50th percentile height, 75th weight = heavy for size
oAfter 3 years children tend to maintain position on growth chart as
growth becomes canalized (weight/height remain at specific percentile)
oPosition changes during adolescence (individual timing and tempo)
Enter puberty early, going to move up percentiles for your age
oGrowth charts during adolescence do not incorporate individual
differences (would be called “tempo conditional” growth charts)
BOOK: *MON FEB 13*
Growth progress or rate
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Growth curve for rate or velocity of growth (cm/yr, kg/yr) – velocity curve
Growth is stature constantly at a decelerating rate (child getting taller but at
slower rate)
oReaches it’s lowest point just before the initiation of the AGS
Weight growth occurs at slight constant accelerating rate, after a deceleration in
infancy and the second year
AGS growth is weight and stature increase/accelerate
Girls spurt starts 2 years earlier ends around 16, men go for 2-3 more years
oSex difference in young adult stature is 13 cm
oActual adolescent growth different around 2cm… difference comes from
males preadolescent growth… 2 years extra of 5cm/yr
oA longer period of preadolescent growth and a slightly greater spurt in
boys account for the sex difference in adult stature
Max rate of growth in stature during AGS is called Peak Height Velocity
o(Indicator of intensity and timing of the spurt, age at the PHV is maturity
indicator)
Midgrowth Spurt
Children may experience small spurt in growth and stature (increase velocity)
several years before onset of AGS (6.5 to 8.5 years of age)
oOccurs more frequently in boys than girls (not all children experience
this)
Episodic Growth
Growth in recumbent length is episodic rather than continuous
oShort term variation in growth labeled as pulsatile, minigrowth spurt,
salutatory
First 2 years, growth in length proceeds in salutatory manner (stepwise increase
or jumps – saltations) separated by periods of no growth (stasis)
oGrowth did not occur in periodic manner (intervals separated by days of
3-100 days of no growth)
Growth in length/height no a steady, continuous process… instead occurs in
intermittent episodes…occur in the different long bones that determine length or
stature and at different times
Percentiles for growth rate
Children typically gain more in stature during spring and summer
Growth rates are also not linear during childhood and adolescence
Female peak velocity 9,11,13– Male peak velocity 11,13,15
oEarly, on time, late
oSize attained and velocity of growth include adjustments for individual
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