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Lecture 9

Kinesiology 3347A/B Lecture 9: Lecture 9 and 10


Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
Kinesiology 3347A/B
Professor
Vincent Liardi
Lecture
9

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Monday, February 22, 2016
Lecture 9
Chapter 8
Jumping, hopping, Leaping
Jump
Person propels self off ground with one or two feet; lands on two feet
Hop
Person propels self off ground with one foot; lands on same foot
Leap
Person propels self off ground with one foot, extends flight period, and lands on
opposite foot.
Early Jumping
Children often begin simple jumping before age 2
General population can perform either vertical or horizontal (standing long) jumps
Early Characteristics:
Jumping only vertically
No or limited preparatory movements
Proficient Jumping - Key characteristics
Preparatory crouch
Maximize take off force
Both feet leave ground at same time
Arm win used during jump
For vertical jump, force is directed downward; knees are flexed during flight
Rate Limiters in Jumping
Development of enough fore to bring own body into th hair from a still position
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Monday, February 22, 2016
Muscles used (two part movement)
Hip extension
Muscles involved in hip extension are the gluteus maximus, semitendinosus,
semimembranosus, the long head of the biceps femoris, and the adductor
magnus
Knee Extension
Knee extension occurs almost simultaneously with hip extension in a vertical
jump
One muscle is involved in knee extension: Quadriceps Femoris
Observation plan
figure 7.12 in book
High jump steps
Fast run up
Leg planted ahead of the body
Stretches quad
Arms up and body up
Get low to get up high
Move centre of mass
Skills like high jumps show that as people develop, we become more biomechanically
proficient
May be due to trial and error
May be due to development
Galloping, sliding, skipping
Involve combination of skills previously obtained
i.e. stepping, hopping and leaping
In other words these skills, developmentally, come after jumping
Gallop and slide are asymmetric
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Gallop:
Forward step on one foot, leap on other
Slide:
Sideways step on one foot, lead on other
Skip is symmetric
Alternating step - hops on one foot, then on the other.
Proficient Galloping, sliding, and skipping
The arms are no longer needed for balance
In skipping, the arms swing rhythmically in opposition to the legs and provide
momentum
Child can use the arms for another purpose during galloping and sliding such as
clapping.
Developmental changes in Galloping, sliding and skipping
Galloping is the first to emerge
Around 2 - 3 years of age
Sliding comes next
Skipping is usually the last to emerge
around 4 - 7 years of age
Chapter 8 - development of Ballistic Skills
Ballistic Skills
Performer applies force to an object to project it
Examples include throwing, kicking, striking
Throwing
Forms
Underhand
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