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Lecture 12: Monday Feb. 6th
Unit 4: Somatic Growth
Ch.3&4 & pg. 224-227
Measurements
- somatic: soma = body
- anthropometry
- quantifying body dimensions
- use of specific landmarks
- methods of measurement
- instrumentation
Importance of height and weight:
- most common measures
- cultural values and social premiums
- status (positively associated with height)
- population health (infant birth weight for estimates of population health)
- infant development
- genetic potential
- nutrition and disease
Stature:
- increases ~3.5x from birth to maturity
- unidimensional
- Gaussian distribution
- create statistical categories (i.e. tall, short)
- population variances
- more consistent than weight (doesn't fluctuate as much, better measure)
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- chronic growth and maturatin issues
- genotypic contribution more influential
Body Size:
Stature
- linear measurement
- composite measure
- skeletal growth
- birth to 2 years: recumbent length lying supine
- Afterwards: sole of foot to vertex (of skull) while erect
Variance in stature:
- within 20% of median - Normal
- 20% below - short
- 20% above - tall
- dwarfism and giants
- 40% or more deviation from median
- generally genetic (inherited traits, not growth problems for about half)
- cannot be this at a young age, must be at mature/adult state
- late maturers
- males vary to a greater extent than females in all dimensions
Body Size:
Weight
- 20x from birth to maturity
- vs. mass
- linear measure (1 axis, downward)
- 3-dimensional (different tissue types)
- composite measure
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- fat, skeletal...
Height
- diurnal variation
- daily variance
- short-term studies
- intervertebral discs
- up to 2cm (as gravity acts on us, compresses our body)
- posture
- tone
- pelvis and vertebral column
- illness (slouch when don't feel well)
- children generally have poor posture
Weight:
- diurnal variation
- caloric consumption vs. expenditure
- bladder and bowel voiding
- physical activity
- water balance
- menstruation (water retention, dietary habits)
Components of stature:
- composite
- sitting height
- seat surface --> vertex
Stature - sitting height = subischial length
- infants up to 2 years - supine
- lower extremity length
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Document Summary

Population health (infant birth weight for estimates of population health) More consistent than weight (doesn"t fluctuate as much, better measure) Birth to 2 years: recumbent length lying supine. Afterwards: sole of foot to vertex (of skull) while erect. Generally genetic (inherited traits, not growth problems for about half) Cannot be this at a young age, must be at mature/adult state. Males vary to a greater extent than females in all dimensions. Up to 2cm (as gravity acts on us, compresses our body) Infants up to 2 years - supine. Indicate the robustness and growth of the skeleton. Bone --> muscle --> adipose --> skin. Midway between acromial process and olecranon process. 3cm lateral and 1cm inferior to umbilicus. Routinely measured until age 3 or 4. Measured above supraorbital ridges and the occipital protuberance. Body size, morphology, proportions and tissue distributions can all be easily measured.

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