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Lecture

Kinesiology 3347A/B Lecture Notes - Subcutaneous Tissue, Body Fat Percentage, Brown Adipose Tissue


Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
Kinesiology 3347A/B
Professor
Navy

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UNIT 5: Contribution of Major Tissues to Somatic Growth
Readings: Ch.8; Ch. 6; Ch.7 (142-154)
Adipose Tissue
- All functional fat cells and tissues in the body
The Adipose organ:
oComprised of adipocytes
oLipid storage
oStored for 4 purposes:
Energy
High-yield)
Passive insulation and active heat regulation
Protection to our viscera
Very important)
Aesthetic
Generally distinguishes male from female forms)
oFat storing/ releasing function
Otherwise not considered an adipocyte
Two major categories of adipose tissue with regards to location:
oSubcutaneous:
Major percentage of adipose organ
Obesity
oEssential:
“internal; deep; visceral; omental” (omentum = fat sheath that covers
viscera)
Around viscera

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Nerve sheaths – motor development*
Cover neurons
If not developed properly, can have CNS problems and motor
deficiencies
Cell membranes
Important vital organs
2 major types of adipose tissues with regards to structure:
oWhite tissue:
Highly abundant
White adipocytes
Structurally different than other adipocytes in the body
Single, large vacuole of lipid or triglyceride
Organelles compressed to periphery of cell
Cells arranged in lobules, held together by collagenous connective
tissue
Mature adipocytes
Round in shape
25 to 150 micrometers
Quite large relative to other cells in the body
Innervated and vascularized
Metabolically active tissue
Glucose, fatty acid, lipoprotein and cholesterol metabolism
Controlled mostly by CNS, quickly responsive tissue
Very responsive to stimuli
Distribution

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All over the body
Some covering the viscera
Mostly superficial (subcutaneous)
oBrown tissue:
Max absolute mass at birth
< 1% of adipose tissue mass
15-50 micrometers (um)
Relatively small
Several small lipid drops
Many small vacuoles (not one large central vacuole = white
tissue)
Nucleus centrally located
Organelles not forced to periphery
Less responsive than white tissue
Hormones that act on brown tissue have to travel to nucleus first
Primary function: heat production
Cold temperature animals
Highly abundant
Highly vascularized and innervated by sympathetic NS (fight-or-
flight)
Survival function
Can respond rather quickly to hormones and to energy
stores to produce heat internally
High concentrations of:
Mitochondria (where energy and heat are produced)
Cytochromes (structures upon which we produce energy)
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