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Kinesiology 3388A/B Lecture Notes - Trait Theory, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness

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Kinesiology 3388A/B

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Chapter 6-9: Group Composition
- Definition
- Amount of Group Resources
- Psychosocial attributes
- ability/skill
- Variability in Group Resources
- Overview
- Task type and diversity
- Compatibility
- Consequences of incompatibility
- Coach-athlete compatibility
Group Composition Defined
- The properties represented by ... persons who are members of the group (McGrath, 1964)
The Amount of Group Resources
- i.e., total or average
- e.g., "you can never have too many goal scorers"
Amount of Psychosocial Attributes: Social and Work Groups
- Recent studies of group conposition, have focused on the "Big Five" personality traits (i.e.,
what happend to the group when more members possess these traits in larger amounts?)
- Trait - a relatively enduring internal attribute or disposition that predisposes a person to
behave in a specific way
The Big 5 Personality Traits
1. Extraversion ... outgoing, sociable, talkative
2. Neuroticism ... insecure, anxious, depressed
3. Conscientiousness ... responsible, diligent, organized
4. Agreeableness ... cooperative, affable, collegial
5. Open to Experience ... open-minded, inquisitive
Amount: Social and Work Groups
- Peeters et al (2006) ... meta analysis of elevation (amount) of big five personality traits
within the group and group performance
- Found: increased agreeableness and conscientiousness associated with superior work
group performance
The Amount of Psycho-Social Attributes: Sport Teams
- Martens (1970)
- Examined individual motive and team success
- Tested TASK and AFFILIATION motive of 1200 athletes on 144 teams
- Computed average team score
- Teams with HIGH AFFILIATION motive:

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- Team success low
- Individual satisfaction high
- Teams with LOW AFFILIATION motive:
- Team success high
- Individual satisfaction low
The Amount of Individual Ability: Sport Teams
- Jones (1974)
- Examined prediction of team success from the amount of resources (skills) in sport
Question for Consideration: What sport is Sports Illustrated most likely to have the greatest
success in predicting order of finish. Why?
- Baseball 0.94
- Football 0.91
- Ladies' Tennis 0.80
- Men's Tennis 0.70
- Basketball 0.60
How Can Group Dynamics Explain Jones' Results?
- Coaches can have the greatest impact in BASKETBALL and the least in BASEBALL
- WHY? What is coaching doing?
- It is: Reducing Coordinatino Losses and Motivation Losses (see Figure 1 in textbook)
Group Effectiveness = Potential Productivity (Resources) - Process Losses
Baseball = less coordination = fewer chances for process losses
Basketball = high coordination = more chances for process losses
Chapter 8: Variability (Diversity) in Group Resources
Diversity in Resources Defined
Refers to the heterogeneity (composed of dissimilar parts) in the characteristics of
individual members of the group
Homogeneity...encourages a group of sense. Birds of a feather flock together, ande
create a more distint entity when they do. People too form a better unit if they are
Homogeneity/Heterogeneity in Groups
Members of any group are both
Homogeneous in characteristics (similar) and…
Heterogeneous in characteristics (different, diverse)
Diversity in Sport: Some Examples
ETHNICITY: 1981-2003: percent of Canadians in NHL decreases from 83% to 54%;
Europeans increase from 8% to 33%
GENDER: 1896-2000: percent of female participation in Summer Olympics increases
from 0% to 38.2%
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