Kinesiology 3480A/B Lecture Notes - Brenda Milner, Temporal Lobe, Neurosurgery

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Topic #5: Memory Systems
talking about memory in 2 different contexts:
o memories that are EXPLICIT in nature
cognitive detail; semantic (general factual knowledge) or episodic
(memories that are personally relevant to you) info
tend to involve high level cortical structures
in order to access these memories you have to be consciously aware
of them, or else they will not exist (have to be consciously interpreted)
formation through linkages between the temporal lobe and the
hippocampus; work in conjunction with one another to form explicit
memories
o IMPLICIT memories
don’t have to have conscious access to them; we can access them
without top-down conscious awareness
tend to be motor related, more often than not
e.g., tying shoelace requires minimal top-down conscious awareness
thought to be retained subcortically, particularly in the cerebellum
(responsible for storing these memories)
there is a continuum of memories
o not necessarily that any given memory is purely implicit or purely explicit
motor learning/how you learn a new task can prove this
thought that when you learn a new motor task, you progress through 3
distinct stages of learning - cognitive stage, associative stage, and
autonomous stage
cognitive stage is more explicit; autonomous is more implicit - use for
continuum
cognitive: completely conscious of what you are doing; make a lot of
mistakes but do not know how to correct them
associative: nexus between cognitive and autonomous; require less
top-down cognitive involvement; become highly aware of the fact that
you are making mistakes, but not necessarily sure how to correct
those mistakes; still under conscious system
autonomous: no top-down conscious involvement in the task,
essentially; make very few if any errors; if you make an error you are
able to correct that error; able to make these error corrections without
being aware that you made an error in the first place; happen very fast
because they are mediated without this top-down control
o imaging studies that have shown the validity of this 3-stage model; paul fitz
model of learning
studies have shown a shift from high-level cortical structures as
someone learns a motor task, to more basic structures residing in
cerebellum
memory can be divided into various subsystems: STSS, STM (aka working
memory), and LTM
implicit and explicit memories mentioned above are long-term memories (LTM)
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Document Summary

Topic #5: memory systems talking about memory in 2 different contexts: memories that are explicit in nature. Don"t have to have conscious access to them; we can access them without top-down conscious awareness tend to be motor related, more often than not. Motor learning/how you learn a new task can prove this thought that when you learn a new motor task, you progress through 3 distinct stages of learning - cognitive stage, associative stage, and autonomous stage. Cognitive stage is more explicit; autonomous is more implicit - use for continuum. Cognitive: completely conscious of what you are doing; make a lot of mistakes but do not know how to correct them. Associative: nexus between cognitive and autonomous; require less top-down cognitive involvement; become highly aware of the fact that you are making mistakes, but not necessarily sure how to correct those mistakes; still under conscious system.

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