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Microbiology and Immunology 2500A/B Lecture Notes - Human Microbiota, Animal Husbandry, Microbiota

Microbiology and Immunology
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Gregor Reid Mar. 1, 2013
What changed?
- 650 million years ago
- Bacteria, water, air & soil changed
- 100 200, 000 years ago
- Humans evolved: added the diet of raw &
fermented meat, plants
- 30 years ago
- There has been no change in the human
genome while the human microbiome has
evolved and it is 150 times larger gene
pool of microbes than the human genome
- Our diet consists of processed and mass-
produced foods; the water & food chains
has been contaminated by chemicals
GI Tract & Food
Stomach breaks down proteins
Small intestine absorbs sugars
Large intestine ferments whatever plant material is left over
Guts are relatively generalized monkey/ape guts
We have a special immune system, special brains, special hands but the guts have been ordinary
for tens of millions of years
These ordinary guts have tended to be filled with fruit & leaves
As the gut bacteria met up with our agricultural diets, it began to compete with new microbial
species that helped us live off wheat, barley, corn, rice, milk & sea weed
Microbiome & Probiotics
- It will impact agriculture, livestock breeding & bioprocessing
- Produce crops resistant to diseases, insects & droughts
- Farm animals becoming healthier, more productive & more disease resistant
- More nutrition is produced
- Biopesticies
- Edible vaccines incorporated into food products
- New Environment cleanup uses for plants like tobacco
Five Reasons to Optimize Our Microbiome
1) Reproductions
2) Breast Cancer
3) Diabetes
4) Mental Health
5) Heart Health
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